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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Preferential primary-response gene expression in promotion-resistant versus promotion-sensitive JB6 cells.

The 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-inducible sequence (TIS) genes are a set of primary response genes induced in Swiss 3T3 cells by TPA. They include three transcription factors, a prostaglandin synthase, and three proteins of unknown function. To ascertain which, if any TIS genes might be involved in tumor promotion, we examined the expression of these genes in response to tumor promoters in transformation promotion-sensitive (P+) and -resistant (P-) JB6 murine epidermal cells, a model used to identify events relevant to promotion. A subset of TIS genes (TIS1, TIS10, and TIS21) was preferentially induced by TPA in P-cells. In addition, TIS1 and TIS21 mRNAs were preferentially induced in P-cells by epidermal growth factor, another transformation promoter that distinguishes P+ from P-cells. TIS1 and TIS21 protein levels were also greater in TPA-treated P-cells than P+ cells. Forskolin, a cAMP-elevating anti-promoter, increased TPA-induced levels of TIS1, TIS10, and TIS21 mRNAs in P+ cells, ruling in potential roles for these genes in modulating tumor promotion. The anti-promoters fluocinolone acetonide, retinoic acid, and superoxide dismutase did not enhance TPA-induced levels of TIS1 and TIS21 mRNAs in P+ cells, suggesting that these inhibitors may act on other promotion-relevant genes. TIS1 encodes a member of the steroid receptor superfamily. TIS1 encodes a protein of unknown function with strong sequence similarity to BTG1, a proposed "anti-proliferative gene" (Rouault JP, Rimokh R, Tessa C, et al., EMBO J 11:1663-1670, 1992). Preferential induction by multiple promoters of these TIS genes in P-cells and enhancement of their induction in P+ cells by the anti-promoter forskolin make TIS1 and TIS21 candidates for promotion suppressor genes.[1]


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