The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Prenatal drug use in Minneapolis-St Paul, Minn. A 4-year trend.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the rates of maternal ingestion of cocaine, marijuana, and opiates in women from Minneapolis-St Paul, Minn, in 1993 and compare them with rates observed in 1989; and to compare outcomes of newborns born to those women with and without evidence of prenatal drug ingestion. STUDY DESIGN: The meconium from newborns of a representative cluster-based sample of women from Minneapolis-St Paul was analyzed for metabolites of cocaine, marijuana, and opiates. The newborns were consecutive births in four urban and suburban hospitals. Maternal demographic information and newborn outcome data were collected and matched to the meconium samples. The race, age, and socioeconomic status of the mothers whose newborns were screened were the same as the demographic characteristics of all women delivering babies in Minneapolis-St Paul in 1990 and 1991. SETTING: Metropolitan hospitals of Minneapolis-St Paul. MAIN RESULTS: Of the 1333 samples, 27 (2.0%) were cocaine positive, 35 (2.6%) were tetrahydrocannabinol positive, and 16 (1.2%) were opiate positive. There were 168 women (22.6%) reporting that they smoked. Detection of tetrahydrocannabinol and cocaine was more common in newborns of women of color, those receiving medical assistance, and those over age 23 years. Newborns with meconium samples positive for cocaine or tetrahydrocannabinol had slightly lower average birth weights but were no more likely to be premature or to require neonatal intensive care unit admission than newborns with no drugs detected in their meconium. Newborns of mothers who smoked throughout pregnancy had lower average birth weights and higher rates of prematurity and neonatal intensive care unit admissions. Standardized rates of cocaine detection in the four hospitals decreased from 4.0% in 1989 to 2.0% in 1993. CONCLUSIONS: Rates of perinatal cocaine detection have declined in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis-St Paul over the past 4 years. In this population, self-reported smoking was associated with more serious adverse outcomes of the newborns than was the detection of cocaine, marijuana, or opiates.[1]


  1. Prenatal drug use in Minneapolis-St Paul, Minn. A 4-year trend. Yawn, B.P., Thompson, L.R., Lupo, V.R., Googins, M.K., Yawn, R.A. Archives of family medicine. (1994) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities