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MeSH Review

Infant, Newborn

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Disease relevance of Infant, Newborn


Psychiatry related information on Infant, Newborn


High impact information on Infant, Newborn


Chemical compound and disease context of Infant, Newborn


Biological context of Infant, Newborn

  • Spleen cells from newborn mice are immunologically nonreactive and do not respond by proliferation upon stimulation with the T cell mitogen concanavalin-A (Con-A ), bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) [25] or with IL-2, but they synthesize a of mRNA for IFNγ after stimulation with IL-2, but do not synthesize IFNγ upon stimulation with Con-A. Since IFNγ is of prime importance for antiviral and fungicidal activities and has complex regulatory functions for the cells of the immune system, we suggest that it could play an important role in the survival of newborns [26].

Anatomical context of Infant, Newborn


Associations of Infant, Newborn with chemical compounds

  • Attenuated glucose production rate in newborn infants of insulin-dependent diabetic mothers [32].
  • When combined treatment is considered, seizure control was achieved in 17 (57 percent) of the neonates assigned to receive phenobarbital first and 18 (62 percent) of those assigned to receive phenytoin first (P=0.67) [13].
  • Pharmacokinetic aspects of theophylline in premature newborns [33].
  • Conversely, the frequency and severity of respiratory-distress syndrome were higher in newborns who had low cord tri-iodothyronine and thyroxine concentration, low free tri-iodothyronine index and high thyrotropin levels [34].
  • We studied the effect of vitamin E on the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasis in neonates with respiratory-distress syndrome [35].

Gene context of Infant, Newborn

  • Alpha-ENaC(-/-) neonates developed respiratory distress and died within 40 h of birth from failure to clear their lungs of liquid [36].
  • The homozygous Fyn-mutant neonates from homozygous Fyn-deficient parents died because of a suckling problem [37].
  • Similarly, the frequency of IL-4, but not of IL-2, producers progressively decreases after emigration to the periphery as judged by direct comparison between thymic and splenic CD4+ cells in newborns, or by following the fate of intrathymically labeled CD4+8- cells in adults after their migration to the spleen [38].
  • By inhibiting iNOS transcription in the fetus and neonate, DHA may contribute to their increased susceptibility to infection [39].
  • Oxygen administration to immature neonates suppresses VEGF-A expression in the retina, resulting in the catastrophic vessel loss that initiates retinopathy of prematurity [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Infant, Newborn


  1. A survey of zidovudine use in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Sperling, R.S., Stratton, P., O'Sullivan, M.J., Boyer, P., Watts, D.H., Lambert, J.S., Hammill, H., Livingston, E.G., Gloeb, D.J., Minkoff, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Use of the polymerase chain reaction for early detection of the proviral sequences of human immunodeficiency virus in infants born to seropositive mothers. New York City Collaborative Study of Maternal HIV Transmission and Montefiore Medical Center HIV Perinatal Transmission Study Group. Rogers, M.F., Ou, C.Y., Rayfield, M., Thomas, P.A., Schoenbaum, E.E., Abrams, E., Krasinski, K., Selwyn, P.A., Moore, J., Kaul, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Predictors of morbidity and mortality in neonates with herpes simplex virus infections. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Collaborative Antiviral Study Group. Whitley, R., Arvin, A., Prober, C., Corey, L., Burchett, S., Plotkin, S., Starr, S., Jacobs, R., Powell, D., Nahmias, A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Single-dose therapy of gonococcal ophthalmia neonatorum with ceftriaxone. Laga, M., Naamara, W., Brunham, R.C., D'Costa, L.J., Nsanze, H., Piot, P., Kunimoto, D., Ndinya-Achola, J.O., Slaney, L., Ronald, A.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Halothane-morphine compared with high-dose sufentanil for anesthesia and postoperative analgesia in neonatal cardiac surgery. Anand, K.J., Hickey, P.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Expression pattern of the most JH-proximal human VH gene segment (VH6) in the B cell and antibody repertoire suggests a role of VH6-encoded IgM antibodies in early ontogeny. Van Es, J.H., Raaphorst, F.M., van Tol, M.J., Meyling, F.H., Logtenberg, T. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. CSF 5-HIAA and family history of antisocial personality disorder in newborns. Constantino, J.N., Morris, J.A., Murphy, D.L. The American journal of psychiatry. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Feeding behavior in neonates whose diet contained medium-chain triacylglycerols: short-term effects on thermoregulation and sleep. Telliez, F., Bach, V., Leke, A., Chardon, K., Libert, J.P. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Analysis of sleep-stage characteristics in full-term newborns by means of spectral and fractal parameters. Carrozzi, M., Accardo, A., Bouquet, F. Sleep. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Withdrawal symptoms in neonates from intrauterine exposure to diazepam. Rementería, J.L., Bhatt, K. J. Pediatr. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Neonatal pulmonary hypertension--urea-cycle intermediates, nitric oxide production, and carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase function. Pearson, D.L., Dawling, S., Walsh, W.F., Haines, J.L., Christman, B.W., Bazyk, A., Scott, N., Summar, M.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. The osteoclast differentiation factor osteoprotegerin-ligand is essential for mammary gland development. Fata, J.E., Kong, Y.Y., Li, J., Sasaki, T., Irie-Sasaki, J., Moorehead, R.A., Elliott, R., Scully, S., Voura, E.B., Lacey, D.L., Boyle, W.J., Khokha, R., Penninger, J.M. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. Phenobarbital compared with phenytoin for the treatment of neonatal seizures. Painter, M.J., Scher, M.S., Stein, A.D., Armatti, S., Wang, Z., Gardiner, J.C., Paneth, N., Minnigh, B., Alvin, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. A novel potassium channel gene, KCNQ2, is mutated in an inherited epilepsy of newborns. Singh, N.A., Charlier, C., Stauffer, D., DuPont, B.R., Leach, R.J., Melis, R., Ronen, G.M., Bjerre, I., Quattlebaum, T., Murphy, J.V., McHarg, M.L., Gagnon, D., Rosales, T.O., Peiffer, A., Anderson, V.E., Leppert, M. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  15. Hyperthyroxinemia in newborns due to excess thyroxine-binding globulin. Viscardi, R.M., Shea, M., Sriwantanakul, K., McCormick, K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  16. Gastric-outlet obstruction induced by prostaglandin therapy in neonates. Peled, N., Dagan, O., Babyn, P., Silver, M.M., Barker, G., Hellmann, J., Scolnik, D., Koren, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Sequential changes of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in hyaline-membrane disease of the newborn. Shelley, S.A., Kovacevic, M., Paciga, J.E., Balis, J.U. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Metabolism of theophylline to caffeine in human fetal liver. Aranda, J.V., Louridas, A.T., Vitullo, B.B., Thom, P., Aldridge, A., Haber, R. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Massive gastric hemorrhage in a neonate. Diagnosis and control by umbilical artery catheterization and intra-arterial vasopressin infusion. Goldman, M.L., Carrasco, N., Thomas, J.K., White, J.J. JAMA (1985) [Pubmed]
  20. Mutations in the human Sonic Hedgehog gene cause holoprosencephaly. Roessler, E., Belloni, E., Gaudenz, K., Jay, P., Berta, P., Scherer, S.W., Tsui, L.C., Muenke, M. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. gamma-beta-Thalassaemia studies showing that deletion of the gamma- and delta-genes influences beta-globin gene expression in man. Van der Ploeg, L.H., Konings, A., Oort, M., Roos, D., Bernini, L., Flavell, R.A. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  22. Leukocytes mediate retinal vascular remodeling during development and vaso-obliteration in disease. Ishida, S., Yamashiro, K., Usui, T., Kaji, Y., Ogura, Y., Hida, T., Honda, Y., Oguchi, Y., Adamis, A.P. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Impaired energy homeostasis in C/EBP alpha knockout mice. Wang, N.D., Finegold, M.J., Bradley, A., Ou, C.N., Abdelsayed, S.V., Wilde, M.D., Taylor, L.R., Wilson, D.R., Darlington, G.J. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Bilirubin-induced modulation of cerebral protein phosphorylation in neonate rabbits in vivo. Morphis, L., Constantopoulos, A., Matsaniotis, N., Papaphilis, A. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  25. Inability of mitogen-stimulated spleen cells from newborn mice to synthesize interleukin-2 receptors. Lipoldová, M., Zajícová, A., Holán, V. Immunology. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Interleukin-2 activates the gamma-interferon gene in newborn mice. Lipoldová, M., Holán, V. Immunol. Cell. Biol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Cocaine use in pregnancy. Chasnoff, I.J., Burns, W.J., Schnoll, S.H., Burns, K.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Engraftment of gene-modified umbilical cord blood cells in neonates with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Kohn, D.B., Weinberg, K.I., Nolta, J.A., Heiss, L.N., Lenarsky, C., Crooks, G.M., Hanley, M.E., Annett, G., Brooks, J.S., el-Khoureiy, A. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  29. Development of the light response in neonatal mammalian rods. Ratto, G.M., Robinson, D.W., Yan, B., McNaughton, P.A. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Thymic selection generates a large T cell pool recognizing a self-peptide in humans. Zippelius, A., Pittet, M.J., Batard, P., Rufer, N., de Smedt, M., Guillaume, P., Ellefsen, K., Valmori, D., Liénard, D., Plum, J., MacDonald, H.R., Speiser, D.E., Cerottini, J.C., Romero, P. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Contrasting effect of alpha/beta- and gamma-interferons on expression of macrophage Ia antigens. Inaba, K., Kitaura, M., Kato, T., Watanabe, Y., Kawade, Y., Muramatsu, S. J. Exp. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  32. Attenuated glucose production rate in newborn infants of insulin-dependent diabetic mothers. Kalhan, S.C., Savin, S.M., Adam, P.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  33. Pharmacokinetic aspects of theophylline in premature newborns. Aranda, J.V., Sitar, D.S., Parsons, W.D., Loughnan, P.M., Neims, A.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Low thyroid hormones and respiratory-distress syndrome of the newborn. Studies on cord blood. Cuestas, R.A., Lindall, A., Engel, R.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  35. Amelioration of bronchopulmonary dysplasia after vitamin E administration. A preliminary report. Ehrenkranz, R.A., Bonta, B.W., Ablow, R.C., Warshaw, J.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1978) [Pubmed]
  36. Early death due to defective neonatal lung liquid clearance in alpha-ENaC-deficient mice. Hummler, E., Barker, P., Gatzy, J., Beermann, F., Verdumo, C., Schmidt, A., Boucher, R., Rossier, B.C. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. A role for Fyn tyrosine kinase in the suckling behaviour of neonatal mice. Yagi, T., Aizawa, S., Tokunaga, T., Shigetani, Y., Takeda, N., Ikawa, Y. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Activation events during thymic selection. Bendelac, A., Matzinger, P., Seder, R.A., Paul, W.E., Schwartz, R.H. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Transcription of the murine iNOS gene is inhibited by docosahexaenoic acid, a major constituent of fetal and neonatal sera as well as fish oils. Khair-El-Din, T., Sicher, S.C., Vazquez, M.A., Chung, G.W., Stallworth, K.A., Kitamura, K., Miller, R.T., Lu, C.Y. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Selective stimulation of VEGFR-1 prevents oxygen-induced retinal vascular degeneration in retinopathy of prematurity. Shih, S.C., Ju, M., Liu, N., Smith, L.E. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  41. Penicillin in infants weighing two kilograms or less with early-onset Group B streptococcal disease. Pyati, S.P., Pildes, R.S., Jacobs, N.M., Ramamurthy, R.S., Yeh, T.F., Raval, D.S., Lilien, L.D., Amma, P., Metzger, W.I. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  42. Neonatal serologic screening and early treatment for congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection. The New England Regional Toxoplasma Working Group. Guerina, N.G., Hsu, H.W., Meissner, H.C., Maguire, J.H., Lynfield, R., Stechenberg, B., Abroms, I., Pasternack, M.S., Hoff, R., Eaton, R.B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  43. Clinical findings in four children with biotinidase deficiency detected through a statewide neonatal screening program. Wolf, B., Heard, G.S., Jefferson, L.G., Proud, V.K., Nance, W.E., Weissbecker, K.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  44. T lymphocytes with a normal ADA gene accumulate after transplantation of transduced autologous umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells in ADA-deficient SCID neonates. Kohn, D.B., Hershfield, M.S., Carbonaro, D., Shigeoka, A., Brooks, J., Smogorzewska, E.M., Barsky, L.W., Chan, R., Burotto, F., Annett, G., Nolta, J.A., Crooks, G., Kapoor, N., Elder, M., Wara, D., Bowen, T., Madsen, E., Snyder, F.F., Bastian, J., Muul, L., Blaese, R.M., Weinberg, K., Parkman, R. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  45. Effect of prolonged illumination (phototherapy) on concentrations of luteinizing hormone in human infants. Dacou-Voutetakis, C., Anagnostakis, D., Matsaniotis, N. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
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