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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Antibiotic-induced bacterial killing stimulates tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in whole blood.

Rapid lysis of gram-negative bacteria is associated with considerable release of free endotoxin. Production of tumor necrosis factor ( TNF) from adult whole blood ex vivo in response to bacterial products generated during antibiotic killing of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) was investigated. Heparinized whole blood released TNF in a dose-dependent fashion in response to purified lipooligosaccharide of Hib. Bacteria (10(4)-10(7) cfu/mL) were placed into a Transwell filter insert (0.1 microns) and incubated with whole blood in the presence of various antibiotics. Exposure to ceftriaxone resulted in significantly greater release of TNF during killing of Hib than did exposure to imipenem, despite similar degrees of bacterial killing at 6 h. Polymyxin B inhibited the ceftriaxone-induced TNF release by 97%-99%, indicating that free endotoxin was the predominant stimulus for the increase in TNF release in this system. These observations suggest that ceftriaxone-induced killing of Hib results in bacterial cell wall products that are more proinflammatory than those produced by imipenem.[1]


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