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Chemical Compound Review

Polymyxin     [(1S)-3-amino-1-[[(1S,2R)-1- [[(1S)-3-amino...

Synonyms: Polymyxinum, B-71, CHEMBL1091313, LS-118116, AC1MJ14N, ...
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Disease relevance of Polymyxin


Psychiatry related information on Polymyxin


High impact information on Polymyxin

  • LPS-induced eosinophil survival was largely inhibited by an anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibody and completely blocked by polymyxin B, suggesting GM-CSF involvement in the survival enhancing mechanism and LPS specificity, respectively [7].
  • Polymyxin B did not prevent IL-1-induced IL-1 expression by these cells, but blocked the effect of endotoxin [8].
  • The staining of IFN-gamma treated LM with FITC-LPS was inhibited by polymyxin B or unlabeled LPS [9].
  • The present study shows that the antifibrinolytic polypeptide, aprotinin, and the nephro- and ototoxic antibiotics, aminoglycosides, and polymyxin B compete for binding of 125I-urokinase-plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 complexes to purified rabbit gp330 [10].
  • The LPS effect was significantly inhibited by preincubation with Polymyxin B and neutrophil acyloxyacyl hydrolase, however two different oligosaccharide-specific monoclonal antibodies did not inhibit activity [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Polymyxin


Biological context of Polymyxin


Anatomical context of Polymyxin

  • Lipid X was found to inhibit LPS-induced priming by directly interacting with the neutrophil in contrast to polymyxin B, which neutralized LPS by binding to it [20].
  • Treatments of the TNF preparations with heat and polymyxin B revealed that the effects on endothelial cells were not due to possibly contaminated endotoxin [21].
  • All 744 patients admitted to a Respiratory-Surgical Intensive Care Unit (RSICU) were included in a prospective study of the effects of a polymyxin (2.5 mg/kg body wt/day in six divided doses) or a placebo aerosol sprayed into the posterior pharynx and tracheal tube (if present), during 11 alternating 2-mo treatment cycles [2].
  • The phorbol ester-induced stabilization of GAP-43 mRNA was blocked by the protein kinase inhibitor polymyxin B and was partially inhibited by dexamethasone, an agent that blocks GAP-43 expression and neuronal differentiation in PC12 cells [22].
  • While lacking demonstrable T-cell activity posttransplantation, he developed a generalized macular erythematous eruption and fever, clinically attributed to intranasal polymyxin B [23].

Associations of Polymyxin with other chemical compounds

  • INTERVENTION: Patients were randomly allocated to an experimental group (n = 75) that received cefotaxime, 1 g intravenously every 8 hours for the first 3 days only, and oral, nonabsorbable antibiotics (gentamicin, polymyxin, and nystatin by oral paste and oral liquid) for the entire stay in the intensive care unit [24].
  • AN/AR was smaller in preconditioned versus control dogs that received no treatment (6 +/- 2% versus 19 +/- 3%, P < .01), H-7 (2 +/- 2% versus 14 +/- 5%, P < .02), or polymyxin B (10 +/- 3% versus 29 +/- 5%, P < .01) during the preconditioning or control period [25].
  • By fluorescence microscopy, we detected the same heterogeneous binding of the polymyxin dansyl derivative [26].
  • Plasma membranes of Drosophila larval cells, containing or lacking cholesterol, were also disrupted by polymyxin [26].
  • In cytotoxicity studies, M-CSF activated macrophages and freshly isolated macrophages killed NBXFO cells in the presence of polymyxin B, eliminating the possibility that contaminating lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was responsible for the delivery of the cytotoxic signal [27].

Gene context of Polymyxin

  • Models based on the proposed protein kinase activity of the PBS2 gene product are presented to explain the interaction between PBS1 and PBS2 gene products involved in conferring polymyxin B resistance on yeast cells [18].
  • The effect of TNF could not be prevented by the addition of polymyxin B or by anti-IL-1 antibodies [28].
  • Both LPS- and lipid A-induced NF-kappaB activation is blocked by preincubation with either anti-TLR4 blocking antibody (HTA125) or Polymyxin B [29].
  • Depletion of T cells and large granular lymphocytes (LGL) from the cultures by anti-Thy-1.2 antibodies plus complement abrogated IFN-gamma production, and the addition of polymyxin B to "aged" splenocyte cultures resulted in loss of IFN production in response to LPS [30].
  • Up-regulation of E-selectin and CCL2 by the killed bacteria was not inhibited by polymyxin B [31].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Polymyxin


  1. A signal transduction system that responds to extracellular iron. Wösten, M.M., Kox, L.F., Chamnongpol, S., Soncini, F.C., Groisman, E.A. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevention of gram-negative bacillary pneumonia using polymyxin aerosol as prophylaxis. II. Effect on the incidence of pneumonia in seriously ill patients. Klick, J.M., du Moulin, G.C., Hedley-Whyte, J., Teres, D., Bushnell, L.S., Feingold, D.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Polymyxin B sensitive strains of Vibrio cholerae non-O1 from recent epidemic in India. Sarkar, B.L., De, S.P., Sircar, B.K., Garg, S., Nair, G.B., Deb, B.C. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of acinetobacter infections sensitive only to polymyxin B and sulbactam. Go, E.S., Urban, C., Burns, J., Kreiswirth, B., Eisner, W., Mariano, N., Mosinka-Snipas, K., Rahal, J.J. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Letter: Endotoxaemia in liver cirrhosis: treatment with polymyxin B. Liehr, H., Grün, M., Brunswig, D., Sautter, T. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  6. Systemic administration of polymyxin B induces hypothermia in rats via an inhibitory effect on metabolic rate. Moriyama, N., Miyoshi, M., Imoto, T., Maruyama, M., Shido, O., Watanabe, T. Eur. J. Pharmacol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Interleukin 10 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced survival and cytokine production by human peripheral blood eosinophils. Takanaski, S., Nonaka, R., Xing, Z., O'Byrne, P., Dolovich, J., Jordana, M. J. Exp. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Human interleukin 1 induces interleukin 1 gene expression in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Warner, S.J., Auger, K.R., Libby, P. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Lack of binding of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to mouse lung macrophages and restoration of binding by gamma interferon. Akagawa, K.S., Tokunaga, T. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Evidence that epithelial glycoprotein 330/megalin mediates uptake of polybasic drugs. Moestrup, S.K., Cui, S., Vorum, H., Bregengård, C., Bjørn, S.E., Norris, K., Gliemann, J., Christensen, E.I. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Haemophilus influenzae lipopolysaccharide-induced blood brain barrier permeability during experimental meningitis in the rat. Wispelwey, B., Lesse, A.J., Hansen, E.J., Scheld, W.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  12. Chronic intracellular infection of alfalfa nodules by Sinorhizobium meliloti requires correct lipopolysaccharide core. Campbell, G.R., Reuhs, B.L., Walker, G.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Phenotypic differences between Salmonella and Escherichia coli resulting from the disparate regulation of homologous genes. Winfield, M.D., Groisman, E.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Production of eosinophil-rich guinea pig peritoneal exudates. Pincus, S.H. Blood (1978) [Pubmed]
  15. An inner membrane enzyme in Salmonella and Escherichia coli that transfers 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose to lipid A: induction on polymyxin-resistant mutants and role of a novel lipid-linked donor. Trent, M.S., Ribeiro, A.A., Lin, S., Cotter, R.J., Raetz, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Oxidative decarboxylation of UDP-glucuronic acid in extracts of polymyxin-resistant Escherichia coli. Origin of lipid a species modified with 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose. Breazeale, S.D., Ribeiro, A.A., Raetz, C.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  17. Inorganic polyphosphate is essential for long-term survival and virulence factors in Shigella and Salmonella spp. Kim, K.S., Rao, N.N., Fraley, C.D., Kornberg, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  18. Complete nucleotide sequence of a gene conferring polymyxin B resistance on yeast: similarity of the predicted polypeptide to protein kinases. Boguslawski, G., Polazzi, J.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  19. Reduced stem cell mobilization in mice receiving antibiotic modulation of the intestinal flora: involvement of endotoxins as cofactors in mobilization. Velders, G.A., van Os, R., Hagoort, H., Verzaal, P., Guiot, H.F., Lindley, I.J., Willemze, R., Opdenakker, G., Fibbe, W.E. Blood (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced priming of human neutrophils by lipid X and 3-Aza-lipid X. Danner, R.L., Joiner, K.A., Parrillo, J.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Actions of tumor necrosis factor on cultured vascular endothelial cells: morphologic modulation, growth inhibition, and cytotoxicity. Sato, N., Goto, T., Haranaka, K., Satomi, N., Nariuchi, H., Mano-Hirano, Y., Sawasaki, Y. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  22. Posttranscriptional regulation of GAP-43 gene expression in PC12 cells through protein kinase C-dependent stabilization of the mRNA. Perrone-Bizzozero, N.I., Cansino, V.V., Kohn, D.T. J. Cell Biol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  23. Polymyxin B reactions, IgE antibody, and T-cell deficiency. Immunochemical studies in a patient after bone marrow transplantation. Lakin, J.D., Strong, D.M., Sell, K.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Prevention of infection in critically ill patients by selective decontamination of the digestive tract. Cockerill, F.R., Muller, S.R., Anhalt, J.P., Marsh, H.M., Farnell, M.B., Mucha, P., Gillespie, D.J., Ilstrup, D.M., Larson-Keller, J.J., Thompson, R.L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Does ischemic preconditioning trigger translocation of protein kinase C in the canine model? Przyklenk, K., Sussman, M.A., Simkhovich, B.Z., Kloner, R.A. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  26. Anionic lipid domains: correlation with functional topography in a mammalian cell membrane. Bearer, E.L., Friend, D.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  27. Macrophages can recognize and kill tumor cells bearing the membrane isoform of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Jadus, M.R., Irwin, M.C., Irwin, M.R., Horansky, R.D., Sekhon, S., Pepper, K.A., Kohn, D.B., Wepsic, H.T. Blood (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Tumor necrosis factor increases the production of plasminogen activator inhibitor in human endothelial cells in vitro and in rats in vivo. van Hinsbergh, V.W., Kooistra, T., van den Berg, E.A., Princen, H.M., Fiers, W., Emeis, J.J. Blood (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates inflammatory signaling by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in human hepatic stellate cells. Paik, Y.H., Schwabe, R.F., Bataller, R., Russo, M.P., Jobin, C., Brenner, D.A. Hepatology (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Interferon-gamma induction by lipopolysaccharide: dependence on interleukin 2 and macrophages. Blanchard, D.K., Djeu, J.Y., Klein, T.W., Friedman, H., Stewart, W.E. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Francisella tularensis selectively induces proinflammatory changes in endothelial cells. Forestal, C.A., Benach, J.L., Carbonara, C., Italo, J.K., Lisinski, T.J., Furie, M.B. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  32. Aerosol polymyxin and pneumonia in seriously ill patients. Feeley, T.W., Du Moulin, G.C., Hedley-Whyte, J., Bushnell, L.S., Gilbert, J.P., Feingold, D.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Ischemic preconditioning does not protect against contractile dysfunction in the presence of residual flow: studies in the isolated, blood-perfused rat heart. Cave, A.C., Silverman, A.S., Apstein, C.S. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Role of activation of protein kinase C in the infarct size-limiting effect of ischemic preconditioning through activation of ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Kitakaze, M., Node, K., Minamino, T., Komamura, K., Funaya, H., Shinozaki, Y., Chujo, M., Mori, H., Inoue, M., Hori, M., Kamada, T. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
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