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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Genotoxic activity of 1-chloromethylpyrene in stomach epithelium in vivo: insensitivity of the stomach scintillation UDS assay.

An acknowledged weakness of current testing programmes for genotoxic hazard has been the potential insensitivity of the established mouse bone marrow micronucleus test and rat liver unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) assays to direct-acting or short-lived mutagens, which may be consumed at the site of initial contact. In such cases, in vivo test systems sampling tissues such as the skin or the stomach would provide valuable data. To test these principles a stomach UDS assay was evaluated using the potent locally active mutagen 1-chloromethylpyrene (1-CMP). Contrary to expectations, no UDS response was observed 16 h following 1-CMP dosage by oral gavage. To confirm the integrity of the 1-CMP used for the stomach UDS assay, a sample of the stored chemical was re-evaluated in vitro and shown to be still strongly positive in the Ames assay and to have alkylating activity at least 15 min after incubation at stomach acid pH. No UDS response was observed when test dose levels were reduced or when earlier sampling times were used. Other genotoxic endpoints were examined in stomach. 32P-Postlabelling analysis revealed high levels of adduct formation in gastric DNA. An assay utilizing electrophoresis of DNA (the comet assay) showed the occurrence of DNA damage following dosing with 1-CMP in vivo. These positive results confirmed that 1-CMP should be regarded as a potential in vivo genotoxin. The failure to detect a UDS response to 1-CMP in stomach was investigated; a strong UDS response was observed in an in vitro hepatocyte UDS assay of 1-CMP indicating that the rat was capable of repairing 1-CMP-derived DNA adducts. Pretreatment of rats with hydroxyurea depressed the level of incorporation of thymidine into DNA both in negative and positive [methyl-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG)] controls. The results of these studies indicated that the protease digestion method employed did not selectively or efficiently sample those cells with any UDS response to 1-CMP or MNNG, and the activity seen for the latter was most likely due to the presence of S phase cells within the digests. As a result of the finding that UDS responses were not demonstrated for the potent direct-acting mutagens 1-CMP and MNNG, the protease digestion/scintillation method for stomach UDS does not appear to have general value in a screening programme for locally active genotoxic agents.[1]


  1. Genotoxic activity of 1-chloromethylpyrene in stomach epithelium in vivo: insensitivity of the stomach scintillation UDS assay. Kennelly, J.C., Lane, M.P., Barker, J.A., Barber, G., Tinwell, H., Gallagher, J.E., Pool-Zobel, B., Schmezer, P., Ashby, J. Carcinogenesis (1993) [Pubmed]
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