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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Species differences in the hydrolysis of 2-cyanoethylene oxide, the epoxide metabolite of acrylonitrile.

The carcinogenic effects of acrylonitrile in rats are believed to be mediated by its DNA-reactive epoxide metabolite, 2-cyanoethylene oxide (CEO). Previous studies have shown that conjugation with glutathione is the major detoxication pathway for both acrylonitrile and CEO. This study investigated the role of epoxide hydrolase in the hydrolysis of CEO by HPLC analysis of the products from [2,3-14C]CEO. CEO is a relatively stable epoxide with a half-life of 99 min at 37 degrees C in sodium phosphate buffer (0.1 M), pH 7. 3. Incubation with hepatic microsomes or cytosols from male F-344 rats or B6C3F1 mice did not enhance the rate of hydrolysis of CEO (0.69 nmol/min). Human hepatic microsomes significantly increased the rate of hydrolysis of CEO, whereas human hepatic cytosols did not. Human hepatic microsomal hydrolysis activity was heat-sensitive and potently inhibited by 1,1,1-trichloropropene oxide (IC50 of 23 microM), indicating that epoxide hydrolase was the catalyst. The hydrolysis of CEO catalyzed by hepatic microsomes from six individuals exhibited normal saturation kinetics with KM ranging from 0.6 to 3.2 mM and Vmax from 8.3 to 18.8 nmol hydrolysis products/min/ mg protein. Pretreatment of rodents with phenobarbital or acetone induced hepatic microsomal hydrolysis activity toward CEO, whereas treatment with beta-naphthoflavone, dexamethasone or acrylonitrile itself was without effect. These data show that humans possess an additional detoxication pathway for CEO that is not active in rodents (but is inducible). The presence of an active epoxide hydrolase hydrolysis activity toward CEO in humans should be considered in assessments of cancer risk from acrylonitrile exposure.[1]


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