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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Combined laparoscopic and endoscopic approach in patients with cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis.

BACKGROUND. The Optimal management of common bile duct stones in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy remains controversial. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in 145 of the 481 patients who had a preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram before their laparoscopic cholecystectomy. RESULTS. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram was successful in 138 patients (95%), and common duct calculi were found in 72 (50%) of them. Endoscopic sphincterotomy with ductal clearance was achieved in 62 of 67 patients during a mean of 1.4 sessions (range, 1 to 5). Five (3.4%) patients had complications after endoscopic intervention, all of which resolved uneventfully . Fourteen patients underwent laparoscopic common duct exploration, five had failed endoscopic extraction, five had their common duct stones left intentionally for laparoscopic intervention, and, in addition, four of the seven patients who had a failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram had stones identified by intraoperative cholangiogram. Ten of these 14 patients underwent a successful laparoscopic common duct exploration. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully completed in 134 of the 145 patients, and none had major intraoperative or postoperative complications. The mean postoperative stay was 2.7 days for those patients who underwent a successful laparoscopic procedure. The overall mean number of admissions for completing the treatment was 2. 3. CONCLUSIONS. Combined laparoscopic and endoscopic approach is a viable option for patients with gallstones and choledocholithiasis.[1]


  1. Combined laparoscopic and endoscopic approach in patients with cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis. Liu, C.L., Lai E, C.S., Lo, C.M., Chu, K.M., Fan, S.T., Wong, J. Surgery (1996) [Pubmed]
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