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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Long exposure to high glucose concentration impairs the responsive expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase by interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in mouse endothelial cells.

To elucidate the pathological metabolism of glutathione synthesis in diabetic endothelial cells, we studied the expression of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS) using a mouse vascular endothelial cell line. Exposing normoglycemic endothelial cells to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) or interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) increased the activity and the mRNA expression of gamma-GCS. The addition of inhibitors for nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) to the cells caused a loss of the gamma-GCS mRNA expression in response to TNF-alpha. A shift of the concentration of glucose in the medium from 5.5 to 28 mM glucose and a following incubation for 7 days decreased the expression of gamma-GCS mRNA. These cells showed no apparent responses of gamma-GCS mRNA or the activity of NF-kappaB to TNF-alpha or IL-beta. Increase in the GSH concentration of the cells treated with 28 mM glucose restored the expression of gamma-GCS mRNA and its response to TNF-alpha or IL-beta, suggesting that redox regulation is involved in the expression of gamma-GCS. In summary, the expression of gamma-GCS is regulated by TNF-alpha or IL-1beta in endothelial cells mediated by NF-kappaB stimulation, and impairment of the regulation of gamma-GCS in hyperglycemic cells may be a cause of medical complications that develop in diabetes mellitus.[1]


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