The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Interleukin-12 primes human CD4 and CD8 T cell clones for high production of both interferon-gamma and interleukin-10.

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) induces differentiation of T helper 1 (Th1) cells, primarily through its ability to prime T cells for high interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production. We now report that the presence of IL-12 during the first several days of in vitro clonal expansion in limiting dilution cultures of polyclonally stimulated human peripheral blood CD4+ and CD8+ T cells also induces stable priming for high IL-10 production. This effect was demonstrated with T cells from both healthy donors and HIV+ patients. Priming for IL-4 production, which requires IL-4, was maximum in cultures containing both IL-12 and IL-4. IL-4 modestly inhibited the IL-12- induced priming for IFN-gamma, but almost completely suppressed the priming for IL-10 production. A proportion of the clones generated from memory CD45RO+ cells, but not those generated from naive CD45RO- CD4+ T cells, produced some combinations of IFN-gamma, IL-10, and IL-4 even in the absence of IL-12 and IL-4, suggesting in vivo cytokine priming; virtually all CD4+ clones generated from either CD45RO(-) or (+) cells, however, produced high levels of both IFN-gamma and IL-10 when IL-12 was present during expansion. These results indicate that each Th1-type (IFN-gamma) and Th2-type (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine gene is independently regulated in human T cells and that the dichotomy between T cells with the cytokine production pattern of Th1 and Th2 cells is not due to a direct differentiation-inducing effect of immunoregulatory cytokines, but rather to secondary selective mechanisms. Particular combinations of cytokines induce a predominant generation of T cell clones with anomalous patterns of cytokine production (e.g., IFN-gamma and IL-4 or IFN-gamma and IL-10) that can also be found in a proportion of fresh peripheral blood T cells with "memory" phenotype or clones generated from them and that may identify novel Th subsets with immunoregulatory functions.[1]


  1. Interleukin-12 primes human CD4 and CD8 T cell clones for high production of both interferon-gamma and interleukin-10. Gerosa, F., Paganin, C., Peritt, D., Paiola, F., Scupoli, M.T., Aste-Amezaga, M., Frank, I., Trinchieri, G. J. Exp. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities