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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Th2 Cells

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Disease relevance of Th2 Cells


High impact information on Th2 Cells

  • Th2 cells produce cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) that are crucial for control of extracellular helminthic infections and promote atopic and allergic diseases [6].
  • Activation of naive CD4(+) T-helper cells results in the development of at least two distinct effector populations, Th1 and Th2 cells [6].
  • Impaired IL-12 responses and enhanced development of Th2 cells in Stat4-deficient mice [7].
  • At higher doses, both Th1 and Th2 cells were deleted following their initial activation, whereas cells which secrete TGF-beta were resistant to deletion [8].
  • Our results show that both types of TH cells induce the secretion of IgM and IgG3, whereas clones of TH1 and TH2 cells specifically induce antigen-specific B cells to secrete IgG2a and IgG1, respectively [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Th2 Cells


Biological context of Th2 Cells


Anatomical context of Th2 Cells


Associations of Th2 Cells with chemical compounds


Gene context of Th2 Cells


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Th2 Cells


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  2. T cell receptor-induced calcineurin activation regulates T helper type 2 cell development by modifying the interleukin 4 receptor signaling complex. Yamashita, M., Katsumata, M., Iwashima, M., Kimura, M., Shimizu, C., Kamata, T., Shin, T., Seki, N., Suzuki, S., Taniguchi, M., Nakayama, T. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Myelin basic protein-specific T helper 2 (Th2) cells cause experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in immunodeficient hosts rather than protect them from the disease. Lafaille, J.J., Keere, F.V., Hsu, A.L., Baron, J.L., Haas, W., Raine, C.S., Tonegawa, S. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. CD30, Th2 cytokines and HIV infection: a complex and fascinating link. Del Prete, G., Maggi, E., Pizzolo, G., Romagnani, S. Immunol. Today (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Interferon alpha prevents spontaneous apoptosis of clonal Th2 cells associated with chronic hypereosinophilia. Schandené, L., Roufosse, F., de Lavareille, A., Stordeur, P., Efira, A., Kennès, B., Cogan, E., Goldman, M. Blood (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Th1-specific cell surface protein Tim-3 regulates macrophage activation and severity of an autoimmune disease. Monney, L., Sabatos, C.A., Gaglia, J.L., Ryu, A., Waldner, H., Chernova, T., Manning, S., Greenfield, E.A., Coyle, A.J., Sobel, R.A., Freeman, G.J., Kuchroo, V.K. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Impaired IL-12 responses and enhanced development of Th2 cells in Stat4-deficient mice. Kaplan, M.H., Sun, Y.L., Hoey, T., Grusby, M.J. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  8. Peripheral deletion of antigen-reactive T cells in oral tolerance. Chen, Y., Inobe, J., Marks, R., Gonnella, P., Kuchroo, V.K., Weiner, H.L. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. Regulation of antibody isotype secretion by subsets of antigen-specific helper T cells. Stevens, T.L., Bossie, A., Sanders, V.M., Fernandez-Botran, R., Coffman, R.L., Mosmann, T.R., Vitetta, E.S. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  10. Reversal of human allergic T helper 2 responses by engagement of signaling lymphocytic activation molecule. Carballido, J.M., Aversa, G., Kaltoft, K., Cocks, B.G., Punnonen, J., Yssel, H., Thestrup-Pedersen, K., de Vries, J.E. J. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. Allergen-specific Th1 cells counteract efferent Th2 cell-dependent bronchial hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation partly via IFN-gamma. Huang, T.J., MacAry, P.A., Eynott, P., Moussavi, A., Daniel, K.C., Askenase, P.W., Kemeny, D.M., Chung, K.F. J. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  12. Lysophospholipids and chemokines activate distinct signal transduction pathways in T helper 1 and T helper 2 cells. Wang, L., Knudsen, E., Jin, Y., Gessani, S., Maghazachi, A.A. Cell. Signal. (2004) [Pubmed]
  13. Chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells activation in vivo increases blood leukocyte counts and its blockade abrogates 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin D2-induced eosinophilia in rats. Shichijo, M., Sugimoto, H., Nagao, K., Inbe, H., Encinas, J.A., Takeshita, K., Bacon, K.B., Gantner, F. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. A rapid flow cytometric assay to detect CD4+ and CD8+ T-helper (Th) 0, Th1 and Th2 cells in whole blood and its application to study cytokine levels in atopic dermatitis before and after cyclosporin therapy. Farrell, A.M., Antrobus, P., Simpson, D., Powell, S., Chapel, H.M., Ferry, B.L. Br. J. Dermatol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Distinct patterns of membrane microdomain partitioning in Th1 and th2 cells. Balamuth, F., Leitenberg, D., Unternaehrer, J., Mellman, I., Bottomly, K. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. CD152 (CTLA-4) determines the unequal resistance of Th1 and Th2 cells against activation-induced cell death by a mechanism requiring PI3 kinase function. Pandiyan, P., Gärtner, D., Soezeri, O., Radbruch, A., Schulze-Osthoff, K., Brunner-Weinzierl, M.C. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Cholera toxin discriminates between T helper 1 and 2 cells in T cell receptor-mediated activation: role of cAMP in T cell proliferation. Muñoz, E., Zubiaga, A.M., Merrow, M., Sauter, N.P., Huber, B.T. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  18. Mechanisms of drug-induced lupus. II. T cells overexpressing lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 become autoreactive and cause a lupuslike disease in syngeneic mice. Yung, R., Powers, D., Johnson, K., Amento, E., Carr, D., Laing, T., Yang, J., Chang, S., Hemati, N., Richardson, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Regulation of the development of type 2 T-helper cells in allergy. Romagnani, S. Curr. Opin. Immunol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Role of NK1.1+ T cells in a TH2 response and in immunoglobulin E production. Yoshimoto, T., Bendelac, A., Watson, C., Hu-Li, J., Paul, W.E. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Reciprocal control of T helper cell and dendritic cell differentiation. Rissoan, M.C., Soumelis, V., Kadowaki, N., Grouard, G., Briere, F., de Waal Malefyt, R., Liu, Y.J. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. GADD45gamma mediates the activation of the p38 and JNK MAP kinase pathways and cytokine production in effector TH1 cells. Lu, B., Yu, H., Chow, C., Li, B., Zheng, W., Davis, R.J., Flavell, R.A. Immunity (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Interleukin (IL)-6 directs the differentiation of IL-4-producing CD4+ T cells. Rincón, M., Anguita, J., Nakamura, T., Fikrig, E., Flavell, R.A. J. Exp. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Immune responses in healthy and allergic individuals are characterized by a fine balance between allergen-specific T regulatory 1 and T helper 2 cells. Akdis, M., Verhagen, J., Taylor, A., Karamloo, F., Karagiannidis, C., Crameri, R., Thunberg, S., Deniz, G., Valenta, R., Fiebig, H., Kegel, C., Disch, R., Schmidt-Weber, C.B., Blaser, K., Akdis, C.A. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. Pollen-associated phytoprostanes inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 production and augment T helper type 2 cell polarization. Traidl-Hoffmann, C., Mariani, V., Hochrein, H., Karg, K., Wagner, H., Ring, J., Mueller, M.J., Jakob, T., Behrendt, H. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. T helper cell subsets require the expression of distinct costimulatory signals by antigen-presenting cells. Weaver, C.T., Hawrylowicz, C.M., Unanue, E.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Involvement of CCL18 in Allergic Asthma. Nadaï, P., Charbonnier, A.S., Chenivesse, C., Sénéchal, S., Fournier, C., Gilet, J., Vorng, H., Chang, Y., Gosset, P., Wallaert, B., Tonnel, A.B., Lassalle, P., Tsicopoulos, A. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. CD40-CD154 interaction and IFN-gamma are required for IL-12 but not prostaglandin E2 secretion by microglia during antigen presentation to Th1 cells. Aloisi, F., Penna, G., Polazzi, E., Minghetti, L., Adorini, L. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Probabilistic regulation in TH2 cells accounts for monoallelic expression of IL-4 and IL-13. Guo, L., Hu-Li, J., Paul, W.E. Immunity (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Stat6 is required for mediating responses to IL-4 and for development of Th2 cells. Kaplan, M.H., Schindler, U., Smiley, S.T., Grusby, M.J. Immunity (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. A critical role for NF-kappa B in GATA3 expression and TH2 differentiation in allergic airway inflammation. Das, J., Chen, C.H., Yang, L., Cohn, L., Ray, P., Ray, A. Nat. Immunol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  32. Chemokine receptor expression identifies Pre-T helper (Th)1, Pre-Th2, and nonpolarized cells among human CD4+ central memory T cells. Rivino, L., Messi, M., Jarrossay, D., Lanzavecchia, A., Sallusto, F., Geginat, J. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  33. Rules of chemokine receptor association with T cell polarization in vivo. Kim, C.H., Rott, L., Kunkel, E.J., Genovese, M.C., Andrew, D.P., Wu, L., Butcher, E.C. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. P-selectin and P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 are major determinants for Th1 cell recruitment to nonlymphoid effector sites in the intestinal lamina propria. Haddad, W., Cooper, C.J., Zhang, Z., Brown, J.B., Zhu, Y., Issekutz, A., Fuss, I., Lee, H.O., Kansas, G.S., Barrett, T.A. J. Exp. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. IL-5 induces a Pgp-1 (CD44) bright B cell subpopulation that is highly enriched in proliferative and Ig secretory activity and binds to hyaluronate. Murakami, S., Miyake, K., June, C.H., Kincade, P.W., Hodes, R.J. J. Immunol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  36. Immunotherapy of experimental metastases by vaccination with interleukin gene-transduced adenocarcinoma cells sharing tumor-associated antigens. Comparison between IL-12 and IL-2 gene-transduced tumor cell vaccines. Rodolfo, M., Zilocchi, C., Melani, C., Cappetti, B., Arioli, I., Parmiani, G., Colombo, M.P. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Analysis of the life cycle of stat6. Continuous cycling of STAT6 is required for IL-4 signaling. Andrews, R.P., Ericksen, M.B., Cunningham, C.M., Daines, M.O., Hershey, G.K. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  38. High level of interleukin-10 production by the activated T cell population within the rheumatoid synovial membrane. Cohen, S.B., Katsikis, P.D., Chu, C.Q., Thomssen, H., Webb, L.M., Maini, R.N., Londei, M., Feldmann, M. Arthritis Rheum. (1995) [Pubmed]
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