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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cost benefit analysis of single and dual chamber pacing for sick sinus syndrome and atrioventricular block. An economic sensitivity analysis of the literature.

The benefits of dual (DDD) over single chamber pacing (VVI) have been demonstrated in haemodynamics, exercise capacity, quality of life and reduced complications in atrioventricular block and sick sinus syndrome. The literature was reviewed to provide complication rates for dual and VVI pacing. Cost calculations were based on United Kingdom 1991 prices. Over a 10-year period, a computer model calculated the incidence and prevalence of atrial fibrillation, stroke, permanent disability, heart failure and mortality in six patient categories: sick sinus syndrome paced VVI, sick sinus syndrome upgraded to DDD, sick sinus syndrome paced DDD from outset, atrioventricular block paced VVI and those upgraded to DDD and atrioventricular block paced initially DDD. Calculations were based on intention to treat. The 10 year survival with DDD vs VVI pacing was 71% vs 57% in sick sinus syndrome and 61% vs 51%, respectively, in atrioventricular block. In both indications the prevalence of heart failure in the 10 year survivors was 60% lower with DDD pacing. In sick sinus syndrome patients paced VVI, 36% had severe disability while only 8% experienced this with DDD pacing. For atrioventricular block the figures were, respectively, 22% vs 3%. The difference in 10 year cumulative cost between VVI and DDD is 13 times the purchase price of a VVI pulse generator for sick sinus syndrome and 7 times for atrioventricular block. In the third year after implantation the cumulative costs of DDD were lower than for VVI for both indications. Dual chamber pacing for both indications, sick sinus syndrome and atrioventricular block, is both clinically and cost effective.[1]


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