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MeSH Review

Great Britain

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Disease relevance of Great Britain


Psychiatry related information on Great Britain

  • AIMS: Since its launch in the prescribing market in 1999 for the treatment of opiate dependence, buprenorphine has rapidly become established as an alternative to methadone treatment in the United Kingdom [6].
  • The following oral fluid opiate cutoffs were evaluated: the GC/MS limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2.5 mg/l; 15 microg/l currently used for oral fluid testing in the United Kingdom (UK); 30 microg/l (Opiate CRS cutoff); and 40 microg/l, the proposed Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) cutoff [7].
  • METHODS: Incidence rates of CJD, based on person-year denominators, were assessed in a cohort of 1,848 patients treated with hGH in the United Kingdom from 1959 through 1985 and followed to the end of 2000 [8].
  • Over 90% of children met the Physical Activity Guidelines for Adolescents (PAGA) and the United States' Healthy People Objective No. 22.6; 80% met the United Kingdom Expert Consensus Group guideline; and 70% met the Healthy People Objective No. 22 [9].

High impact information on Great Britain


Chemical compound and disease context of Great Britain


Biological context of Great Britain

  • Almost half the sample shared the same Y-chromosome haplotype, which has not been observed in control samples either from the same geographic region or from the United Kingdom as a whole [20].
  • The presence of a FLT3 internal tandem duplication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adds important prognostic information to cytogenetic risk group and response to the first cycle of chemotherapy: analysis of 854 patients from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council AML 10 and 12 trials [21].
  • PURPOSE: This phase I study was performed to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of escalating doses of Marimastat (British Biotech, Inc, Oxford, United Kingdom) in patients with advanced malignancies and to determine the phase II recommended dose to be used in subsequent studies [22].
  • METHODS: Frequencies of BcHE K variant, alpha2M insertion and/or deletion polymorphism, the ApoE common polymorphisms and promoter variants at ApoE-491 and -291, were examined by fluorescent RFLP in DNA from 276 United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study Type II diabetic subjects and 351 non-diabetic subjects from the Diabetes In Families study [23].
  • Linkage analysis of markers on chromosome 11q13 with asthma and atopy in a United Kingdom population [24].

Anatomical context of Great Britain


Associations of Great Britain with chemical compounds


Gene context of Great Britain


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Great Britain


  1. Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104 infections in the United States. Glynn, M.K., Bopp, C., Dewitt, W., Dabney, P., Mokhtar, M., Angulo, F.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  2. Variation of risks of breast and ovarian cancer associated with different germline mutations of the BRCA2 gene. Gayther, S.A., Mangion, J., Russell, P., Seal, S., Barfoot, R., Ponder, B.A., Stratton, M.R., Easton, D. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma in primary biliary cirrhosis: detection by alpha-fetoprotein estimation. Melia, W.M., Johnson, P.J., Neuberger, J., Zaman, S., Portmann, B.C., Williams, R. Gastroenterology (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Studies of association between the gene for calpain-10 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the United Kingdom. Evans, J.C., Frayling, T.M., Cassell, P.G., Saker, P.J., Hitman, G.A., Walker, M., Levy, J.C., O'Rahilly, S., Rao, P.V., Bennett, A.J., Jones, E.C., Menzel, S., Prestwich, P., Simecek, N., Wishart, M., Dhillon, R., Fletcher, C., Millward, A., Demaine, A., Wilkin, T., Horikawa, Y., Cox, N.J., Bell, G.I., Ellard, S., McCarthy, M.I., Hattersley, A.T. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. A study of FRAXE in mentally retarded individuals referred for fragile X syndrome (FRAXA) testing in the United Kingdom. Knight, S.J., Ritchie, R.J., Chakrabarti, L., Cross, G., Taylor, G.R., Mueller, R.F., Hurst, J., Paterson, J., Yates, J.R., Dow, D.J., Davies, K.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. The rise of buprenorphine prescribing in England: analysis of NHS regional data, 2001-03. de Wet, C.J., Reed, L.J., Bearn, J. Addiction (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Performance characteristics of the Cozart RapiScan Oral Fluid Drug Testing System for opiates in comparison to ELISA and GC/MS following controlled codeine administration. Kacinko, S.L., Barnes, A.J., Kim, I., Moolchan, E.T., Wilson, L., Cooper, G.A., Reid, C., Baldwin, D., Hand, C.W., Huestis, M.A. Forensic Sci. Int. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in United Kingdom patients treated with human pituitary growth hormone. Swerdlow, A.J., Higgins, C.D., Adlard, P., Jones, M.E., Preece, M.A. Neurology (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Levels of physical activity among school-age children in Taiwan: a comparison with international recommendations. Liou, Y.M., Chiang, L.C. The journal of nursing research : JNR. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Reducing the risk of multiple births by transfer of two embryos after in vitro fertilization. Templeton, A., Morris, J.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. A male-female bias in type 1 diabetes and linkage to chromosome Xp in MHC HLA-DR3-positive patients. Cucca, F., Goy, J.V., Kawaguchi, Y., Esposito, L., Merriman, M.E., Wilson, A.J., Cordell, H.J., Bain, S.C., Todd, J.A. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Appetite-suppressant drugs and the risk of primary pulmonary hypertension. International Primary Pulmonary Hypertension Study Group. Abenhaim, L., Moride, Y., Brenot, F., Rich, S., Benichou, J., Kurz, X., Higenbottam, T., Oakley, C., Wouters, E., Aubier, M., Simonneau, G., Bégaud, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. Correlation of DNA adduct levels in human lung with cigarette smoking. Phillips, D.H., Hewer, A., Martin, C.N., Garner, R.C., King, M.M. Nature (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. TPA patent battle rages in United Kingdom. Johnston, K. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular follow-up in gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: early analysis of the LY03 cooperative trial. Bertoni, F., Conconi, A., Capella, C., Motta, T., Giardini, R., Ponzoni, M., Pedrinis, E., Novero, D., Rinaldi, P., Cazzaniga, G., Biondi, A., Wotherspoon, A., Hancock, B.W., Smith, P., Souhami, R., Cotter, F.E., Cavalli, F., Zucca, E. Blood (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Anastrozole is superior to tamoxifen as first-line therapy for advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women: results of a North American multicenter randomized trial. Arimidex Study Group. Nabholtz, J.M., Buzdar, A., Pollak, M., Harwin, W., Burton, G., Mangalik, A., Steinberg, M., Webster, A., von Euler, M. J. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. The United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group's second germ cell tumor study: carboplatin, etoposide, and bleomycin are effective treatment for children with malignant extracranial germ cell tumors, with acceptable toxicity. Mann, J.R., Raafat, F., Robinson, K., Imeson, J., Gornall, P., Sokal, M., Gray, E., McKeever, P., Hale, J., Bailey, S., Oakhill, A. J. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Phase I/II study of iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine in chemoresistant neuroblastoma: a United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group investigation. Lashford, L.S., Lewis, I.J., Fielding, S.L., Flower, M.A., Meller, S., Kemshead, J.T., Ackery, D. J. Clin. Oncol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Temozolomide in malignant gliomas of childhood: a United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group and French Society for Pediatric Oncology Intergroup Study. Lashford, L.S., Thiesse, P., Jouvet, A., Jaspan, T., Couanet, D., Griffiths, P.D., Doz, F., Ironside, J., Robson, K., Hobson, R., Dugan, M., Pearson, A.D., Vassal, G., Frappaz, D. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Surnames and the Y chromosome. Sykes, B., Irven, C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The presence of a FLT3 internal tandem duplication in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) adds important prognostic information to cytogenetic risk group and response to the first cycle of chemotherapy: analysis of 854 patients from the United Kingdom Medical Research Council AML 10 and 12 trials. Kottaridis, P.D., Gale, R.E., Frew, M.E., Harrison, G., Langabeer, S.E., Belton, A.A., Walker, H., Wheatley, K., Bowen, D.T., Burnett, A.K., Goldstone, A.H., Linch, D.C. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  22. Phase I trial of Marimastat, a novel matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, administered orally to patients with advanced lung cancer. Wojtowicz-Praga, S., Torri, J., Johnson, M., Steen, V., Marshall, J., Ness, E., Dickson, R., Sale, M., Rasmussen, H.S., Chiodo, T.A., Hawkins, M.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Butyrylcholinesterase K variant on chromosome 3 q is associated with Type II diabetes in white Caucasian subjects. Hashim, Y., Shepherd, D., Wiltshire, S., Holman, R.R., Levy, J.C., Clark, A., Cull, C.A. Diabetologia (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Linkage analysis of markers on chromosome 11q13 with asthma and atopy in a United Kingdom population. Simon Thomas, N., Wilkinson, J., Lonjou, C., Morton, N.E., Holgate, S.T. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Humoral inhibitor of rat hepatocyte DNA synthesis from patients with fulminant liver failure. Yamada, H., Toda, G., Yoshiba, M., Hashimoto, N., Ikeda, Y., Mitsui, H., Kurokawa, K., Sugata, F., Hughes, R.D., Williams, R. Hepatology (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Synergistic antitumor activity of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib and IFN-alpha in head and neck cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Bruzzese, F., Di Gennaro, E., Avallone, A., Pepe, S., Arra, C., Caraglia, M., Tagliaferri, P., Budillon, A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  27. Subpopulation characteristics of egg-contaminating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis as defined by the lipopolysaccharide O chain. Guard-Bouldin, J., Gast, R.K., Humphrey, T.J., Henzler, D.J., Morales, C., Coles, K. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Lack of association of T cell receptor V beta 8 polymorphism with rheumatoid arthritis in United Kingdom and Italian white patients. Lunardi, C., Ibberson, M., Zeminian, S., De Sandre, G., So, A.K. Ann. Rheum. Dis. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Follicular fluid levels of midazolam, fentanyl, and alfentanil during transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Soussis, I., Boyd, O., Paraschos, T., Duffy, S., Bower, S., Troughton, P., Lowe, J., Grounds, R. Fertil. Steril. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Worlds apart? The reception of genetically modified foods in Europe and the U.S. Gaskell, G., Bauer, M.W., Durant, J., Allum, N.C. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Evaluation of vitamin A and carotenoid data in food composition tables. Beecher, G.R., Khachik, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. The lymphocyte beta-adrenoceptor in normal subjects and patients with bronchial asthma: the effect of different forms of treatment on receptor function. Conolly, M.E., Greenacre, J.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
  33. Home parenteral nutrition in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Mughal, M., Irving, M. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Drug regulation in the United States and the United Kingdom: the Depo-Provera story. Richard, B.W., Lasagna, L. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  35. Investigation of the SLC22A4 gene (associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population) in a United Kingdom population of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Barton, A., Eyre, S., Bowes, J., Ho, P., John, S., Worthington, J. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. A functional haplotype of the PADI4 gene associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a Japanese population is not associated in a United Kingdom population. Barton, A., Bowes, J., Eyre, S., Spreckley, K., Hinks, A., John, S., Worthington, J. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  37. Linkage analysis of the genetic loci for high myopia on 18p, 12q, and 17q in 51 U.K. families. Farbrother, J.E., Kirov, G., Owen, M.J., Pong-Wong, R., Haley, C.S., Guggenheim, J.A. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. Chemokine receptor polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. Easterbrook, P.J., Rostron, T., Ives, N., Troop, M., Gazzard, B.G., Rowland-Jones, S.L. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Comparison of complementary and genomic DNA sequencing for the detection of mutations in the HMBS gene in British patients with acute intermittent porphyria: identification of 25 novel mutations. Whatley, S.D., Woolf, J.R., Elder, G.H. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. No evidence that FLT3 status should be considered as an indicator for transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): an analysis of 1135 patients, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia, from the UK MRC AML10 and 12 trials. Gale, R.E., Hills, R., Kottaridis, P.D., Srirangan, S., Wheatley, K., Burnett, A.K., Linch, D.C. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  41. Detection and localization of PrPSc in the skeletal muscle of patients with variant, iatrogenic, and sporadic forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Peden, A.H., Ritchie, D.L., Head, M.W., Ironside, J.W. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  42. Risk of acute liver injury associated with the combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid. García Rodríguez, L.A., Stricker, B.H., Zimmerman, H.J. Arch. Intern. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  43. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori metronidazole resistance in migrants to east London: relation with previous nitroimidazole exposure and gastroduodenal disease. Banatvala, N., Davies, G.R., Abdi, Y., Clements, L., Rampton, D.S., Hardie, J.M., Feldman, R.A. Gut (1994) [Pubmed]
  44. Molecular characterization of bovine enteric caliciviruses: a distinct third genogroup of noroviruses (Norwalk-like viruses) unlikely to be of risk to humans. Oliver, S.L., Dastjerdi, A.M., Wong, S., El-Attar, L., Gallimore, C., Brown, D.W., Green, J., Bridger, J.C. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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