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Chemical Compound Review

DDD     1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1- (4...

Synonyms: Rhothane, Rothane, Dilene, Rh othane, Rhothane d-3, ...
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Disease relevance of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane

  • Of the 52 patients randomized to ODO, 22 (42%) had recurrent syncope within 6 months compared with 16 (33%) of 48 patients in the DDD group [1].
  • In contrast, pertussis toxin-sensitive B cell sticking does not require SLC or MIP-3beta signaling, and occurs efficiently in SLC(low/-) HEV segments in wild-type mice, and in the SLC-negative HEVs of DDD/1 mice [2].
  • The development of erythroleukemia was suppressed under the genetic background of C57B1/6 mouse (resistant to F-MuLV; Fv-2rr), and required additional events even under the background of DDD mouse (susceptible to F-MuLV; Fv-2ss) [3].
  • Patients with DDD pacemakers who have intact retrograde conduction are known to be at risk of developing ventricular and "endless loop" tachycardia [4].
  • BACKGROUND: We previously reported that 6 to 12 weeks of dual-chamber (DDD) pacing results in clinical and hemodynamic improvement in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) [5].

Psychiatry related information on Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane

  • Although changes in PWA during physical activities are known to occur in DDD/R pacing, there is little information on the P wave stability in single pass lead VDD/R pacemakers using floating P wave sensing [6].
  • RESULTS: A fracture risk reduction was seen in women aged>or=50 years using >or=0.3 DDD/day [7].
  • A questionnaire with regard to cardiovascular symptoms, sleep disturbances, cognitive functioning, physical ability, social interaction, emotional functioning, and self-perceived health was completed after 2 months of atrial synchronous (DDD) and rate modulated ventricular pacing (VVI,R), respectively [8].
  • Pacing in the DDD mode temporarily assists the critical period preceding the onset of cerebral autoregulation that plays a key role in preventing the deleterious effects of vasodepression [9].
  • Significant improvement in the mean total quality-of-life score (20.5 +/- 14.9 vs 34.8 +/- 17.4) as well as in dyspnea on effort, dizzy spells, palpitation, sweating, fatigue, lethargy, emotional functioning, and self-perceived health was observed during DDD compared to VVIR pacing [10].

High impact information on Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane

  • The increase in the number of reports of abnormalities in male sex development in wildlife and humans coincided with the introduction of 'oestrogenic' chemicals such as DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane) into the environment [11].
  • The relative risk reduction in time to syncope with DDD pacing was 30% (95% CI, -33% to 63%; 1-sided P =.14) [1].
  • One strain tested, DDD (KsIsD?) is HSF sensitive but does not develop EAE (presumably because it lacks the appropriate responder H-2 haplotype) [12].
  • Mammary tumors of line TPDMT-4, established in DDD mice, were characterized by growth during pregnancy and regression after parturition; this resulted in higher growth peaks in subsequent pregnancies in breeders and no growth in virgins [13].
  • We assessed the effects of changing the atrioventricular interval during temporary or permanent dual-chamber DDD pacing in twelve dilated cardiomyopathy patients with short ventricular filling times due to regurgitation [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane


Biological context of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane


Anatomical context of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane

  • Peptide analogues that include a TDE sequence from the disintegrin region of fertilin beta are able to bind to the egg plasma membrane and strongly inhibit sperm-egg fusion [25].
  • Furthermore, DDD/1 athymic recipients developed signs of acute EAE by the adoptive transfer of I-A-compatible syngeneic and allogeneic T cell clones, in which there was no significant difference in time of onset, maximum severity, or prognosis [26].
  • DDD mice carrying hyperplastic mtv-2+ LN grafts or pretreated with mtv-2+ spleen cells developed an unresponsive state in terms of influx of mtv-2- lymphoid cells into mtv-2+ LN grafts [27].
  • The antitumor activity of Meth A-hyperimmunized BALB/c mouse spleen cells (Meth A-Im-SPL) was assayed by the Winn test in H-2 incompatible bone marrow chimeras in closed colony CD-1 (nu/nu), inbred DDD/1(nu/nu) (H-2s), or inbred BALB/c(nu/nu) (H-2d) mice as recipients [28].
  • Termination of ventricular tachycardia by chest wall stimulation during DDD pacing. A report of two cases [29].

Associations of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane

  • And interestingly, Fringe domain in CHSY1 has this DDD motif [34].
  • CHSY1 contains a Fringe domain, and Fringe is well known for its regulation of Notch signaling via its DDD motif [34].
  • Nonspecific augmentation of lymph node T cells and I-E-independent selective deletion of V beta 14+ T cells by Mtv-2 in the DDD mouse [35].
  • Isolation and characterization of a genomic DDD mouse interleukin-3 gene [36].
  • Much is now known about the structure and expression of the PrP gene, but the physiological function of the PrP protein and the mechanism by which the TDE pathogen replicates and specifically interferes with PrP metabolism remain a mystery--a mystery which will entertain prion-ophiliacs for some time yet [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane

  • For EF determination, TDE algorithms (especially those using multiple planes of section) were superior to unidimensional algorithms commonly used with M-mode echocardiography [38].
  • Five different algorithms for determining left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and volumes from two-dimensional echocardiographic examination (TDE) were compared with standard methods for obtaining EF and volume from x-ray cineangiography (cine) and EF from radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) in 35 patients [38].
  • By site-directed mutagenesis, we determined that the acidic motif of DDD, which is conserved between the C family of glycosyltransferases, is essential for the enzymatic activity of KfiA [39].
  • BACKGROUND: In the treatment of HOCM, surgical myectomy and DDD pacemaker therapy are considered the standard procedural extensions to drug therapy with negatively inotropic drugs [40].
  • Eleven patients with a DDD pacemaker were evaluated by impedance cardiography [23].


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  2. The role of chemokines in the microenvironmental control of T versus B cell arrest in Peyer's patch high endothelial venules. Warnock, R.A., Campbell, J.J., Dorf, M.E., Matsuzawa, A., McEvoy, L.M., Butcher, E.C. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Env-derived gp55 gene of Friend spleen focus-forming virus specifically induces neoplastic proliferation of erythroid progenitor cells. Aizawa, S., Suda, Y., Furuta, Y., Yagi, T., Takeda, N., Watanabe, N., Nagayoshi, M., Ikawa, Y. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  4. Atrioventricular sequential pacing: differential effect on retrograde conduction related to level of impulse collision. Mahmud, R., Lehmann, M., Denker, S., Gilbert, C.J., Akhtar, M. Circulation (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Long-term results of dual-chamber (DDD) pacing in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Evidence for progressive symptomatic and hemodynamic improvement and reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy. Fananapazir, L., Epstein, N.D., Curiel, R.V., Panza, J.A., Tripodi, D., McAreavey, D. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Comparative evaluation of bipolar atrial electrogram amplitude during everyday activities: atrial active fixation versus two types of single pass VDD/R leads. Chan, C.C., Lau, C.P., Leung, S.K., Tai, Y.T., Leung, W.H., Lee, I., Tang, M.O. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (1994) [Pubmed]
  7. Fracture reducing potential of hormone replacement therapy on a population level. Vestergaard, P., Rejnmark, L., Mosekilde, L. Maturitas. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Quality-of-life in patients treated with atrioventricular synchronous pacing compared to rate modulated ventricular pacing: a long-term, double-blind, crossover study. Linde-Edelstam, C., Nordlander, R., Undén, A.L., Orth-Gomér, K., Rydén, L. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Cerebral hemodynamics during carotid massage in patients with carotid sinus syndrome. Leftheriotis, G., Rozak, P., Dupuis, J.M., Victor, J., Tadeï, A., Saumet, J.L. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. Quality-of-life during DDD and dual sensor VVIR pacing. Lukl, J., Doupal, V., Heinc, P. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (1994) [Pubmed]
  11. Persistent DDT metabolite p,p'-DDE is a potent androgen receptor antagonist. Kelce, W.R., Stone, C.R., Laws, S.C., Gray, L.E., Kemppainen, J.A., Wilson, E.M. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  12. Acute autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice. II. Susceptibility is controlled by the combination of H-2 and histamine sensitization genes. Linthicum, D.S., Frelinger, J.A. J. Exp. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  13. Lack of growth of a pregnancy-dependent mouse mammary tumor (TPDMT-4) in the absence of pituitary hormones. Matsuzawa, A., Yamamoto, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1977) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of dual-chamber pacing with short atrioventricular delay in dilated cardiomyopathy. Brecker, S.J., Xiao, H.B., Sparrow, J., Gibson, D.G. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. DDE and DDT in breast adipose tissue and risk of female breast cancer. Zheng, T., Holford, T.R., Mayne, S.T., Ward, B., Carter, D., Owens, P.H., Dubrow, R., Zahm, S.H., Boyle, P., Archibeque, S., Tessari, J. Am. J. Epidemiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Importance of antitumor immunity for complete cure of highly drug-sensitive leukemia in mice. Takeda, Y., Sekiguchi, M., Matsuzawa, A. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  17. Is there a synergic effect of propafenone associated with atrial overdrive pacing for atrial arrhythmia prevention? A randomised crossover study. Garrigue, S., Barold, S.S., Cazeau, S., Hocini, M., Jais, P., Haissaguerre, M., Clementy, J. Heart (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Metabolic and mutagenicity studies on DDT and 15 derivatives. Detection of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethane and 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethyl acetate (kelthane acetate) as mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and of 1,1-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene oxide, a likely metabolite, as an alkylating agent. Planche, G., Croisy, A., Malaveille, C., Tomatis, L., Bartsch, H. Chem. Biol. Interact. (1979) [Pubmed]
  19. Full ventricular capture indicated by the QT interval function. Gottfridsson, C., Wallentin, I., Dernevik, L., Van Rooijen, H., Van Groeningen, C., Edvardsson, N. Pacing and clinical electrophysiology : PACE. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Cardiovascular responses during static exercise. Studies in patients with complete heart block and dual chamber pacemakers. Alexander, T., Friedman, D.B., Levine, B.D., Pawelczyk, J.A., Mitchell, J.H. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  21. Tight genetic linkage between the kdr insecticide resistance trait and a voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene in the house fly. Knipple, D.C., Doyle, K.E., Marsella-Herrick, P.A., Soderlund, D.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  22. A novel mutant gene involved in T-lymphocyte-specific homing into peripheral lymphoid organs on mouse chromosome 4. Nakano, H., Mori, S., Yonekawa, H., Nariuchi, H., Matsuzawa, A., Kakiuchi, T. Blood (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Measurements of cardiac output by impedance cardiography in pacemaker patients at rest: effects of various atrioventricular delays. Ovsyshcher, I., Zimlichman, R., Katz, A., Bondy, C., Furman, S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. A randomized double-blind crossover comparison of four rate-responsive pacing modes. Sulke, N., Chambers, J., Dritsas, A., Sowton, E. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  25. Identification of a binding site in the disintegrin domain of fertilin required for sperm-egg fusion. Myles, D.G., Kimmel, L.H., Blobel, C.P., White, J.M., Primakoff, P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Studies of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by using encephalitogenic T cell lines and clones in euthymic and athymic mice. Sakai, K., Namikawa, T., Kunishita, T., Yamanouchi, K., Tabira, T. J. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  27. Dramatic hyperplasia of mtv-2+ lymph node grafts in mtv-2- recipients and selective stimulation of V beta 14+ T cells in recipients' lymph nodes in the DDD mouse. Matsuzawa, A., Nakano, H., Sakamoto, S., Yoshimoto, T., Nariuchi, H. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Essential requirement of I-A region-identical host bone marrow or bone marrow-derived cells for tumor neutralization by primed L3T4+ T cells. Ozawa, H., Iwaguchi, T., Kataoka, T. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Termination of ventricular tachycardia by chest wall stimulation during DDD pacing. A report of two cases. Barold, S.S., Falkoff, M.D., Ong, L.S., Heinle, R.A. Am. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Antitumor effect of the antiestrogen, tamoxifen, ona pregnancy-dependent mouse mammary tumor (TPDMT-4). Matsuzawa, A., Mizuno, Y., Yamamoto, T. Cancer Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Antitumor effect of two oral steroids, mepitiostane and fluoxymesterone, on a pregnancy-dependent mouse mammary tumor (TPDMT-4). Matsuzawa, A., Yamamoto, T. Cancer Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Body mass index and serum 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane in nulliparous Chinese women. Perry, M.J., Ouyang, F., Korrick, S., Venners, S.A., Altshul, L., Xu, X., Wang, X. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  33. Thiol stimulation of the cytochrome P-450-dependent reduction of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) to 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD). Kelner, M.J., McLenithan, J.C., Anders, M.W. Biochem. Pharmacol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Chondroitin synthase 1 is a key molecule in myeloma cell-osteoclast interactions. Yin, L. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Nonspecific augmentation of lymph node T cells and I-E-independent selective deletion of V beta 14+ T cells by Mtv-2 in the DDD mouse. Nakano, H., Yoshimoto, T., Kakiuchi, T., Matsuzawa, A. Eur. J. Immunol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Isolation and characterization of a genomic DDD mouse interleukin-3 gene. Todokoro, K., Yamamoto, A., Amanuma, H., Ikawa, Y. Gene (1985) [Pubmed]
  37. The scrapie fibril protein and its cellular isoform. Hope, J., Manson, J. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  38. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes by real-time, two-dimensional echocardiography. A comparison of cineangiographic and radionuclide techniques. Folland, E.D., Parisi, A.F., Moynihan, P.F., Jones, D.R., Feldman, C.L., Tow, D.E. Circulation (1979) [Pubmed]
  39. Identification that KfiA, a protein essential for the biosynthesis of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular polysaccharide, is an alpha -UDP-GlcNAc glycosyltransferase. The formation of a membrane-associated K5 biosynthetic complex requires KfiA, KfiB, and KfiC. Hodson, N., Griffiths, G., Cook, N., Pourhossein, M., Gottfridson, E., Lind, T., Lidholt, K., Roberts, I.S. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Percutaneous transluminal septal myocardial ablation in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: acute results and 3-month follow-up in 25 patients. Seggewiss, H., Gleichmann, U., Faber, L., Fassbender, D., Schmidt, H.K., Strick, S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
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