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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha is a phosphoprotein: regulation by insulin.

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily implicated in adipocyte differentiation. The observations that PPAR alpha is a regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism and that the insulin-sensitizing thiazolidinediones are ligands for PPAR gamma suggest that cross-talk might exist between insulin signaling and PPAR activity, possibly through insulin-induced PPAR phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation of endogenous PPAR alpha from primary rat adipocytes prelabeled with [32P]-orthophosphate and pretreated for 2 h with vanadate and okadaic acid demonstrated for the first time that PPAR alpha is a phosphoprotein in vivo. Treatment with insulin induced a time-dependent increase in PPAR phosphorylation showing a 3-fold increase after 30 min. Insulin also increased the phosphorylation of human PPAR alpha expressed in CV-1 cells. These changes in phosphorylation were paralleled by enhanced transcriptional activity of PPAR alpha and gamma. Transfection studies in CV-1 cells and HepG2 cells revealed a nearly 2-fold increase of PPAR activity in the presence of insulin. In contrast, insulin had no effect on the transcriptional activity of transfected thyroid hormone receptor in CV-1 cells, suggesting a PPAR-specific effect. Thus, insulin stimulates PPAR alpha phosphorylation and enhances the transcriptional activity of PPAR, suggesting that the transcriptional activity of this nuclear hormone receptor might be modulated by insulin-mediated phosphorylation.[1]


  1. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha is a phosphoprotein: regulation by insulin. Shalev, A., Siegrist-Kaiser, C.A., Yen, P.M., Wahli, W., Burger, A.G., Chin, W.W., Meier, C.A. Endocrinology (1996) [Pubmed]
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