The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

PPARG  -  peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor...

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: CIMT1, GLM1, NR1C3, Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3, PPAR-gamma, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of PPARG


Psychiatry related information on PPARG


High impact information on PPARG


Chemical compound and disease context of PPARG


Biological context of PPARG

  • The variant PPARG genotype was associated with a reduced recurrence risk (HR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.86) among untreated patients [19].
  • Our findings are consistent with the idea that mutant PPARG can underlie the partial lipodystrophy phenotype [2].
  • Association of the Pro12Ala and C1431T variants of PPARG and their haplotypes with susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes [20].
  • METHODS: We determined the PPARG genotype of a large Scottish cohort of Type 2 diabetic patients ( n=1997) and compared allele frequencies with a cohort of local children ( n=2444) and a middle-aged, population-based cohort from Scotland ( n=1061) [20].
  • High levels of expression of PPARG and the gene encoding its interacting protein, PPARGC1A, in most EMCs suggest activation of lipid metabolism pathways in this tumour [21].

Anatomical context of PPARG


Associations of PPARG with chemical compounds

  • Candidate gene sequencing showed that all four affected subjects were heterozygous for a novel T-->A mutation at PPARG nucleotide 1164 in exon 5 that predicted substitution of phenylalanine at codon 388 by leucine (F388L) [2].
  • Analysis of the coding region of PPARG revealed C to T heterozygous mutation at nucleotide 1273 in exon 6 which changes a highly conserved residue, arginine at position 425 to cysteine (R425C) in the patient FX200.21 [27].
  • Plasma triglyceride levels (P = 0.044), the mean number of coronary lesions (P = 0.026) and changes in minimum lumen diameter in response to fluvastatin (P = 0.022) were also associated with PPARG haplotypes [4].
  • Using primary amnion and WISH cells, we evaluated the effects of pharmacological (thiazolidinediones) and putative endogenous (15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J2, 15d-PGJ2) PPARG ligands on cytokine-induced NFkappaB activation, COX2 expression, and PGE2 production [22].
  • A single amino acid, which is tyrosine in PPAR alpha and histidine in PPAR gamma, imparts subtype selectivity for both thiazolidinedione and nonthiazolidinedione ligands [28].
  • Our data indicate that the reduced transcriptional activity of PPARgamma R425C is not caused by impaired corepressor release, but due to reduced dimerization with retinoic acid X receptor alpha in combination with reduced ligand binding and subsequent coactivator binding [29].
  • Both 15-d-PGJ2 and troglitazone blocked C/EBPbeta transcriptional activity by forming PPARgamma complexes with C/EBPbeta [30].
  • Neither PPARG P12A nor five other variants significantly affected the impact of troglitazone on insulin sensitivity in 340 participants at 1 yr [31].
  • Insulin alone stimulated expression of PPAR-gamma, alpha-subunit and beta-subunit of insulin receptor, and IRS-1 up to 174% (P < 0.001), 692% (P < 0.014), 275% (P < 0.024), and 431% (P < 0.01), respectively [32].
  • Mutations within the context of the full-length PGC-1alpha indicate that the first PGC-1alpha motif is necessary and sufficient for PGC-1alpha to coactivate PPARgamma in the presence or absence of rosiglitazone [33].

Physical interactions of PPARG


Regulatory relationships of PPARG


Other interactions of PPARG


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PPARG


  1. Linkage to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in SAMP1/YitFc mice and in human Crohn's disease. Sugawara, K., Olson, T.S., Moskaluk, C.A., Stevens, B.K., Hoang, S., Kozaiwa, K., Cominelli, F., Ley, K.F., McDuffie, M. Gastroenterology (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. PPARG F388L, a transactivation-deficient mutant, in familial partial lipodystrophy. Hegele, R.A., Cao, H., Frankowski, C., Mathews, S.T., Leff, T. Diabetes (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Delineation, functional validation, and bioinformatic evaluation of gene expression in thyroid follicular carcinomas with the PAX8-PPARG translocation. Giordano, T.J., Au, A.Y., Kuick, R., Thomas, D.G., Rhodes, D.R., Wilhelm, K.G., Vinco, M., Misek, D.E., Sanders, D., Zhu, Z., Ciampi, R., Hanash, S., Chinnaiyan, A., Clifton-Bligh, R.J., Robinson, B.G., Nikiforov, Y.E., Koenig, R.J. Clin. Cancer Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Effects of PPARalpha, gamma and delta haplotypes on plasma levels of lipids, severity and progression of coronary atherosclerosis and response to statin therapy in the lipoprotein coronary atherosclerosis study. Chen, S., Tsybouleva, N., Ballantyne, C.M., Gotto, A.M., Marian, A.J. Pharmacogenetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma C190S mutation causes partial lipodystrophy. Lüdtke, A., Buettner, J., Wu, W., Muchir, A., Schroeter, A., Zinn-Justin, S., Spuler, S., Schmidt, H.H., Worman, H.J. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  6. Vascular effects of PPARgamma activators - from bench to bedside. Marx, N., Walcher, D. Prog. Lipid Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. PPARgamma expression profile and its cytokine driven regulation in atopic dermatitis. Dahten, A., Mergemeier, S., Worm, M. Allergy (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses growth and induces apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells. Garcia-Bates, T.M., Bernstein, S.H., Phipps, R.P. Clin. Cancer Res. (2008) [Pubmed]
  9. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in amyloid precursor protein processing and amyloid beta-mediated cell death. d'Abramo, C., Massone, S., Zingg, J.M., Pizzuti, A., Marambaud, P., Dalla Piccola, B., Azzi, A., Marinari, U.M., Pronzato, M.A., Ricciarelli, R. Biochem. J. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Does peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma genotype (Pro12ala) modify the association of physical activity and dietary fat with fasting insulin level? Franks, P.W., Luan, J., Browne, P.O., Harding, A.H., O'Rahilly, S., Chatterjee, V.K., Wareham, N.J. Metab. Clin. Exp. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Variants of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma- and beta-adrenergic receptor genes are associated with measures of compensatory eating behaviors in young children. Cecil, J.E., Palmer, C.N., Fischer, B., Watt, P., Wallis, D.J., Murrie, I., Hetherington, M.M. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and metabolic disease. Willson, T.M., Lambert, M.H., Kliewer, S.A. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Understanding adipocyte differentiation. Gregoire, F.M., Smas, C.M., Sul, H.S. Physiol. Rev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. The many faces of PPARgamma. Lehrke, M., Lazar, M.A. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Terminal differentiation of human liposarcoma cells induced by ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and the retinoid X receptor. Tontonoz, P., Singer, S., Forman, B.M., Sarraf, P., Fletcher, J.A., Fletcher, C.D., Brun, R.P., Mueller, E., Altiok, S., Oppenheim, H., Evans, R.M., Spiegelman, B.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Regulation of retinoic acid receptor beta expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands in cancer cells. James, S.Y., Lin, F., Kolluri, S.K., Dawson, M.I., Zhang, X.K. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Troglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma ) ligand, selectively induces the early growth response-1 gene independently of PPAR gamma. A novel mechanism for its anti-tumorigenic activity. Baek, S.J., Wilson, L.C., Hsi, L.C., Eling, T.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) activates cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha)-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE)2/EP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma)/Smad signaling pathways in human liver cancer cells. A novel mechanism for subversion of TGF-beta-induced mitoinhibition. Han, C., Demetris, A.J., Liu, Y., Shelhamer, J.H., Wu, T. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Polymorphisms in inflammation genes and bladder cancer: from initiation to recurrence, progression, and survival. Leibovici, D., Grossman, H.B., Dinney, C.P., Millikan, R.E., Lerner, S., Wang, Y., Gu, J., Dong, Q., Wu, X. J. Clin. Oncol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Association of the Pro12Ala and C1431T variants of PPARG and their haplotypes with susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes. Doney, A.S., Fischer, B., Cecil, J.E., Boylan, K., McGuigan, F.E., Ralston, S.H., Morris, A.D., Palmer, C.N. Diabetologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. The gene expression profile of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Subramanian, S., West, R.B., Marinelli, R.J., Nielsen, T.O., Rubin, B.P., Goldblum, J.R., Patel, R.M., Zhu, S., Montgomery, K., Ng, T.L., Corless, C.L., Heinrich, M.C., van de Rijn, M. J. Pathol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Modulation of cytokine-induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression by PPARG ligands through NFkappaB signal disruption in human WISH and amnion cells. Ackerman, W.E., Zhang, X.L., Rovin, B.H., Kniss, D.A. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Opposite association of two PPARG variants with cancer: overrepresentation of H449H in endometrial carcinoma cases and underrepresentation of P12A in renal cell carcinoma cases. Smith, W.M., Zhou, X.P., Kurose, K., Gao, X., Latif, F., Kroll, T., Sugano, K., Cannistra, S.A., Clinton, S.K., Maher, E.R., Prior, T.W., Eng, C. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma C161T polymorphisms and survival of Japanese patients with immunoglobulin A nephropathy. Song, J., Sakatsume, M., Narita, I., Goto, S., Omori, K., Takada, T., Saito, N., Ueno, M., Gejyo, F. Clin. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators inhibit gene expression and migration in human vascular smooth muscle cells. Marx, N., Schönbeck, U., Lazar, M.A., Libby, P., Plutzky, J. Circ. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Depot-related gene expression in human subcutaneous and omental adipocytes. Montague, C.T., Prins, J.B., Sanders, L., Zhang, J., Sewter, C.P., Digby, J., Byrne, C.D., O'Rahilly, S. Diabetes (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. A novel heterozygous mutation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene in a patient with familial partial lipodystrophy. Agarwal, A.K., Garg, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Structural determinants of ligand binding selectivity between the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Xu, H.E., Lambert, M.H., Montana, V.G., Plunket, K.D., Moore, L.B., Collins, J.L., Oplinger, J.A., Kliewer, S.A., Gampe, R.T., McKee, D.D., Moore, J.T., Willson, T.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Impaired peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma function through mutation of a conserved salt bridge (R425C) in familial partial lipodystrophy. Jeninga, E.H., van Beekum, O., van Dijk, A.D., Hamers, N., Hendriks-Stegeman, B.I., Bonvin, A.M., Berger, R., Kalkhoven, E. Mol. Endocrinol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  30. Inhibition of adhesive interaction between multiple myeloma and bone marrow stromal cells by PPARgamma cross talk with NF-kappaB and C/EBP. Wang, L.H., Yang, X.Y., Zhang, X., Farrar, W.L. Blood (2007) [Pubmed]
  31. Effects of the type 2 diabetes-associated PPARG P12A polymorphism on progression to diabetes and response to troglitazone. Florez, J.C., Jablonski, K.A., Sun, M.W., Bayley, N., Kahn, S.E., Shamoon, H., Hamman, R.F., Knowler, W.C., Nathan, D.M., Altshuler, D. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  32. Interactions among peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, insulin signaling pathways, and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in human ovarian cells. Seto-Young, D., Avtanski, D., Strizhevsky, M., Parikh, G., Patel, P., Kaplun, J., Holcomb, K., Rosenwaks, Z., Poretsky, L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  33. Structural and biochemical basis for the binding selectivity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma to PGC-1alpha. Li, Y., Kovach, A., Suino-Powell, K., Martynowski, D., Xu, H.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  34. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activators regulate genes governing lipoprotein metabolism, vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. Fruchart, J.C., Duriez, P., Staels, B. Curr. Opin. Lipidol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma down-regulates chondrocyte matrix metalloproteinase-1 via a novel composite element. François, M., Richette, P., Tsagris, L., Raymondjean, M., Fulchignoni-Lataud, M.C., Forest, C., Savouret, J.F., Corvol, M.T. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Cyclooxygenase-independent induction of apoptosis by sulindac sulfone is mediated by polyamines in colon cancer. Babbar, N., Ignatenko, N.A., Casero, R.A., Gerner, E.W. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Multiplexed molecular interactions of nuclear receptors using fluorescent microspheres. Iannone, M.A., Consler, T.G., Pearce, K.H., Stimmel, J.B., Parks, D.J., Gray, J.G. Cytometry. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits transforming growth factor beta-induced connective tissue growth factor expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells by interfering with Smad3. Fu, M., Zhang, J., Zhu, X., Myles, D.E., Willson, T.M., Liu, X., Chen, Y.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Growth stimulation of COX-2-negative pancreatic cancer by a selective COX-2 inhibitor. Eibl, G., Takata, Y., Boros, L.G., Liu, J., Okada, Y., Reber, H.A., Hines, O.J. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta promotes lipid accumulation in human macrophages. Vosper, H., Patel, L., Graham, T.L., Khoudoli, G.A., Hill, A., Macphee, C.H., Pinto, I., Smith, S.A., Suckling, K.E., Wolf, C.R., Palmer, C.N. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Cyclooxygenase-2 is induced in monocytes by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma and oxidized alkyl phospholipids from oxidized low density lipoprotein. Pontsler, A.V., St Hilaire, A., Marathe, G.K., Zimmerman, G.A., McIntyre, T.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  42. Cytokine regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human endometrial cells. Wanichkul, T., Han, S., Huang, R.P., Sidell, N. Fertil. Steril. (2003) [Pubmed]
  43. Functional genomic analysis reveals cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and calcium signaling in human colorectal cancer cells. Bush, C.R., Havens, J.M., Necela, B.M., Su, W., Chen, L., Yanagisawa, M., Anastasiadis, P.Z., Guerra, R., Luxon, B.A., Thompson, E.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  44. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits follicular and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells growth by upregulating p21Cip1/WAF1 gene in a Sp1-dependent manner. Bonofiglio, D., Qi, H., Gabriele, S., Catalano, S., Aquila, S., Belmonte, M., Andò, S. Endocr. Relat. Cancer (2008) [Pubmed]
  45. Rosiglitazone and 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2, PPARgamma agonists, differentially regulate cigarette smoke-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine release in monocytes/macrophages. Caito, S., Yang, S.R., Kode, A., Edirisinghe, I., Rajendrasozhan, S., Phipps, R.P., Rahman, I. Antioxid. Redox Signal. (2008) [Pubmed]
  46. Inhibition of activator protein 1 activation, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 in colon carcinoma cells: evidence for a redox-sensitive peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-independent mechanism. Grau, R., Iñiguez, M.A., Fresno, M. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  47. Association of common polymorphisms in inflammatory genes interleukin (IL)6, IL8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, NFKB1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma with colorectal cancer. Landi, S., Moreno, V., Gioia-Patricola, L., Guino, E., Navarro, M., de Oca, J., Capella, G., Canzian, F. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  48. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma interacts with CIITA x RFX5 complex to repress type I collagen gene expression. Xu, Y., Farmer, S.R., Smith, B.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  49. Analysis of separate and combined effects of common variation in KCNJ11 and PPARG on risk of type 2 diabetes. Hansen, S.K., Nielsen, E.M., Ek, J., Andersen, G., Glümer, C., Carstensen, B., Mouritzen, P., Drivsholm, T., Borch-Johnsen, K., Jørgensen, T., Hansen, T., Pedersen, O. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2005) [Pubmed]
  50. Cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes is associated with variation at the PPARG locus: a Go-DARTS study. Doney, A.S., Fischer, B., Leese, G., Morris, A.D., Palmer, C.N. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  51. Expression of adipogenic transcription factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1, IL-6 and CD45 in subcutaneous adipose tissue in lipodystrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Kannisto, K., Sutinen, J., Korsheninnikova, E., Fisher, R.M., Ehrenborg, E., Gertow, K., Virkamäki, A., Nyman, T., Vidal, H., Hamsten, A., Yki-Järvinen, H. AIDS (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities