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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin-mediated efflux of 7-ketocholesterol from macrophage foam cells.

Atherosclerosis involves the arterial accumulation of lipid-laden "foam cells" containing oxidized and unoxidized sterols and their esters (Mattsson-Hulten, L., Lindmark, H., Diczfalusy, U., Bjorkhem, I., Ottosson, M., Liu, Y., Bondjers, G., and Wiklund, O. (1996) J. Clin. Invest. 97, 461-8). Oxidized sterols are probably critical to atherogenesis because they inhibit cholesterol removal from cells and are cytotoxic. We recently reported that there is deficient induction of cellular cholesterol efflux by apolipoprotein A-I, the main initial acceptor of cellular cholesterol from macrophages loaded in vitro with oxidized low density lipoprotein (Kritharides, L., Jessup, W., Mander, E., and Dean, R. T. (1995) Arterioscler. Thromb. 15, 276-289). There was an even more marked impairment of the release of 7-ketocholesterol which is a major oxysterol in these cells and in human atherosclerotic lesions. Here we show that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin can induce selective efflux of 7-ketocholesterol. Efflux of 7-ketocholesterol was time and concentration dependent, and the rate of its removal was 50-fold greater for hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin than for apolipoprotein A-I. Over a defined range of concentrations (0-5 mg/ml), efflux of 7-ketocholesterol was preferred over that of cholesterol and occurred without cell toxicity. Efflux of free 7-ketocholesterol was associated with decreased intracellular free and esterified 7-ketocholesterol. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin also enhanced efflux of other oxysterols. The physical solubilization of 7-ketocholesterol by the cyclodextrin was much greater than that of cholesterol, in accordance with its differential effects on efflux. These data highlight the importance of extracellular sterol solubilization in the efflux of cellular oxysterols and the mobilization of intracellular free and esterified oxysterol pools in macrophages loaded with oxidized low density lipoprotein. Synthetic sterol-solubilizing agents such as hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin are thus potential prototypes for the further development of oxysterol-removing agents.[1]


  1. Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin-mediated efflux of 7-ketocholesterol from macrophage foam cells. Kritharides, L., Kus, M., Brown, A.J., Jessup, W., Dean, R.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
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