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Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT): mutational studies of familial EXT1 cases and EXT-associated malignancies.

Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the formation of cartilage-capped prominences that develop from the growth centers of the long bones. EXT is genetically heterogeneous, with three loci, currently identified on chromosomes 8q24.1, 11p13, and 19q. The EXT1 gene, located on chromosome 8q24.1, has been cloned and is encoded by a 3.4-kb cDNA. Five mutations in the EXT1 gene have been identified--four germ-line mutations, including two unrelated families with the same mutation, and one somatic mutation in a patient with chondrosarcoma. Four of the mutations identified resulted in frameshifts and premature termination codons, while the fifth mutation resulted in a substitution of leucine for arginine. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis of chondrosarcomas and chondroblastomas revealed multiple LOH events at loci on chromosomes 3q, 8q, 10q, and 19q. One sporadic chondrosarcoma demonstrated LOH for EXT1 and EXT3, while a second underwent LOH for EXT2 and chromosome 10. A third chondrosarcoma underwent LOH for EXT1 and chromosome 3q. These results agree with previous findings that mutations at EXT1 and multiple genetic events that include LOH at other loci may be required for the development of chondrosarcoma.[1]


  1. Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT): mutational studies of familial EXT1 cases and EXT-associated malignancies. Hecht, J.T., Hogue, D., Wang, Y., Blanton, S.H., Wagner, M., Strong, L.C., Raskind, W., Hansen, M.F., Wells, D. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
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