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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Germ Cells

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Disease relevance of Germ Cells


Psychiatry related information on Germ Cells


High impact information on Germ Cells

  • Other mutations, induced by the random germ line mutagen ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea), have disclosed key molecules in the TLR signaling pathways and helped us to construct a reasonably sophisticated portrait of the afferent innate immune response [10].
  • Genealogical analysis of several bm mutants has further indicated that at least some, if not all, of the gene interaction events generating Kb mutations occurred during mitotic amplification of the germ cells [11].
  • In addition, germ line mutations in the PTEN gene also play a major role in the development of Cowden and Bannayan-Zonana syndromes, in which patients often suffer from increased risk of breast and thyroid cancers [12].
  • Germ-cell loss extends C. elegans life span through regulation of DAF-16 by kri-1 and lipophilic-hormone signaling [13].
  • In C. elegans, removing the germ cells extends life span by triggering the nuclear localization and activation of the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor in the intestine [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Germ Cells


Biological context of Germ Cells


Anatomical context of Germ Cells

  • Cyclin A1 is expressed in mice exclusively in the germ cell lineage and is expressed in humans at highest levels in the testis and certain myeloid leukaemia cells [24].
  • Most of the Rhox genes are expressed in Sertoli cells, the nurse cells in direct contact with developing male germ cells, suggesting that they regulate the expression of somatic-cell gene products critical for germ cell development [25].
  • During oogenesis, the level of tribbles affects the number of germ cell divisions as well as oocyte determination [26].
  • It has previously been shown that germ cells in embryos derived from nos mutant mothers do not migrate to the primitive gonad and prematurely express several germline-specific markers [27].
  • Plzf is required in adult male germ cells for stem cell self-renewal [28].

Associations of Germ Cells with chemical compounds


Gene context of Germ Cells

  • Germ-line APC mutations were detected in 10 [32].
  • W and Sl mutations have similar phenotypic effects including deficiencies in pigment cells, germ cells, and blood cells, Numerous studies have suggested that W acts within the affected cell while Sl instead exerts its effects in the extracellular environment [33].
  • In addition, germ-line mutations in the mismatch-repair genes hMLH1 or hPMS2 were found in two families [32].
  • We hypothesized that this predisposition might be due to germ-line CDKN2A mutations [5].
  • Here we show that the Xist gene, which is a expressed predominantly from the inactive X-chromosome in female somatic cells, is also expressed in germ cells of both sexes, but only at those stages when an inactive X chromosome is present [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Germ Cells


  1. Germ-line BRCA1 mutations in Jewish and non-Jewish women with early-onset breast cancer. FitzGerald, M.G., MacDonald, D.J., Krainer, M., Hoover, I., O'Neil, E., Unsal, H., Silva-Arrieto, S., Finkelstein, D.M., Beer-Romero, P., Englert, C., Sgroi, D.C., Smith, B.L., Younger, J.W., Garber, J.E., Duda, R.B., Mayzel, K.A., Isselbacher, K.J., Friend, S.H., Haber, D.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Clinical and pathological features of ovarian cancer in women with germ-line mutations of BRCA1. Rubin, S.C., Benjamin, I., Behbakht, K., Takahashi, H., Morgan, M.A., LiVolsi, V.A., Berchuck, A., Muto, M.G., Garber, J.E., Weber, B.L., Lynch, H.T., Boyd, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Treatment of disseminated germ-cell tumors with cisplatin, bleomycin, and either vinblastine or etoposide. Williams, S.D., Birch, R., Einhorn, L.H., Irwin, L., Greco, F.A., Loehrer, P.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. Serum alpha fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin in the diagnosis and management of nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer. Lange, P.H., McIntire, K.R., Waldmann, T.A., Hakala, T.R., Fraley, E.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  5. CDKN2A mutations in multiple primary melanomas. Monzon, J., Liu, L., Brill, H., Goldstein, A.M., Tucker, M.A., From, L., McLaughlin, J., Hogg, D., Lassam, N.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Nucleotide sequence of messenger RNA encoding VHDJH and VKJK of a highly conserved idiotype-defined primary response anti-hapten antibody. Lou, S.C., Winter, D., Mayers, G.L., Bankert, R.B. J. Immunol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Stella is a maternal effect gene required for normal early development in mice. Payer, B., Saitou, M., Barton, S.C., Thresher, R., Dixon, J.P., Zahn, D., Colledge, W.H., Carlton, M.B., Nakano, T., Surani, M.A. Curr. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Efficient carboplatin single therapy in a mouse model of human testicular nonseminomatous germ cell tumor. Aharinejad, S., Fink, M., Abri, H., Nedwed, S., Schlag, M.G., Macfelda, K., Abraham, D., Miksovsky, A., Höltl, E., Höltl, W. J. Urol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Involvement of Fas system and active caspases in apoptotic signalling in testicular germ cells of ethanol-treated rats. Eid, N.A., Shibata, M.A., Ito, Y., Kusakabe, K., Hammad, H., Otsuki, Y. Int. J. Androl. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF HOST RESISTANCE: Toll-Like Receptor Signaling and Immunity at Large. Beutler, B., Jiang, Z., Georgel, P., Crozat, K., Croker, B., Rutschmann, S., Du, X., Hoebe, K. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Murine major histocompatibility complex class-I mutants: molecular analysis and structure-function implications. Nathenson, S.G., Geliebter, J., Pfaffenbach, G.M., Zeff, R.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  12. PTEN and myotubularin: novel phosphoinositide phosphatases. Maehama, T., Taylor, G.S., Dixon, J.E. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Germ-cell loss extends C. elegans life span through regulation of DAF-16 by kri-1 and lipophilic-hormone signaling. Berman, J.R., Kenyon, C. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Androgen and germ cell testicular cancers. Vogelzang, N.J., Arnold, J.L., Chodak, G.J., Schoenberg, H. JAMA (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Back pain--a presentation of metastatic testicular germ cell tumours. Cantwell, B.M., Mannix, K.A., Harris, A.L. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Coordinate transcription and V(D)J recombination of the kappa immunoglobulin light-chain locus: NF-kappaB-dependent and -independent pathways of activation. O'Brien, D.P., Oltz, E.M., Van Ness, B.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase contributes to the transformation of hematopoietic cells by the D816V c-Kit mutant. Chian, R., Young, S., Danilkovitch-Miagkova, A., Rönnstrand, L., Leonard, E., Ferrao, P., Ashman, L., Linnekin, D. Blood (2001) [Pubmed]
  18. Review of the comparative pharmacology and clinical activity of cisplatin and carboplatin. Go, R.S., Adjei, A.A. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Caenorhabditis elegans ABL-1 antagonizes p53-mediated germline apoptosis after ionizing irradiation. Deng, X., Hofmann, E.R., Villanueva, A., Hobert, O., Capodieci, P., Veach, D.R., Yin, X., Campodonico, L., Glekas, A., Cordon-Cardo, C., Clarkson, B., Bornmann, W.G., Fuks, Z., Hengartner, M.O., Kolesnick, R. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Spermiogenesis and exchange of basic nuclear proteins are impaired in male germ cells lacking Camk4. Wu, J.Y., Ribar, T.J., Cummings, D.E., Burton, K.A., McKnight, G.S., Means, A.R. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. The flightless Drosophila mutant raised has two distinct genetic lesions affecting accumulation of myofibrillar proteins in flight muscles. Mahaffey, J.W., Coutu, M.D., Fyrberg, E.A., Inwood, W. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. roughex is a dose-dependent regulator of the second meiotic division during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Gönczy, P., Thomas, B.J., DiNardo, S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Heterozygosity with respect to Zfp148 causes complete loss of fetal germ cells during mouse embryogenesis. Takeuchi, A., Mishina, Y., Miyaishi, O., Kojima, E., Hasegawa, T., Isobe, K. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. Cyclin A1 is required for meiosis in the male mouse. Liu, D., Matzuk, M.M., Sung, W.K., Guo, Q., Wang, P., Wolgemuth, D.J. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Rhox: a new homeobox gene cluster. Maclean, J.A., Chen, M.A., Wayne, C.M., Bruce, S.R., Rao, M., Meistrich, M.L., Macleod, C., Wilkinson, M.F. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Tribbles coordinates mitosis and morphogenesis in Drosophila by regulating string/CDC25 proteolysis. Mata, J., Curado, S., Ephrussi, A., Rørth, P. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Novel functions of nanos in downregulating mitosis and transcription during the development of the Drosophila germline. Deshpande, G., Calhoun, G., Yanowitz, J.L., Schedl, P.D. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Plzf is required in adult male germ cells for stem cell self-renewal. Buaas, F.W., Kirsh, A.L., Sharma, M., McLean, D.J., Morris, J.L., Griswold, M.D., de Rooij, D.G., Braun, R.E. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Mitogen- and IL-4-regulated expression of germ-line Ig gamma 2b transcripts: evidence for directed heavy chain class switching. Lutzker, S., Rothman, P., Pollock, R., Coffman, R., Alt, F.W. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  30. Calcium and a calcium-dependent protein kinase regulate gamete formation and mosquito transmission in a malaria parasite. Billker, O., Dechamps, S., Tewari, R., Wenig, G., Franke-Fayard, B., Brinkmann, V. Cell (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Complementarity between sperm surface beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase and egg-coat ZP3 mediates sperm-egg binding. Miller, D.J., Macek, M.B., Shur, B.D. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. The molecular basis of Turcot's syndrome. Hamilton, S.R., Liu, B., Parsons, R.E., Papadopoulos, N., Jen, J., Powell, S.M., Krush, A.J., Berk, T., Cohen, Z., Tetu, B. N. Engl. J. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  33. Mast cell growth factor maps near the steel locus on mouse chromosome 10 and is deleted in a number of steel alleles. Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Cho, B.C., Donovan, P.J., Jenkins, N.A., Cosman, D., Anderson, D., Lyman, S.D., Williams, D.E. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  34. Expression of Xist in mouse germ cells correlates with X-chromosome inactivation. McCarrey, J.R., Dilworth, D.D. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  35. The t complex polypeptide 1 (TCP-1) is associated with the cytoplasmic aspect of Golgi membranes. Willison, K., Lewis, V., Zuckerman, K.S., Cordell, J., Dean, C., Miller, K., Lyon, M.F., Marsh, M. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Early gastric cancer in young, asymptomatic carriers of germ-line E-cadherin mutations. Huntsman, D.G., Carneiro, F., Lewis, F.R., MacLeod, P.M., Hayashi, A., Monaghan, K.G., Maung, R., Seruca, R., Jackson, C.E., Caldas, C. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  37. Transplantation of male germ line stem cells restores fertility in infertile mice. Ogawa, T., Dobrinski, I., Avarbock, M.R., Brinster, R.L. Nat. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Expression of members of the putative olfactory receptor gene family in mammalian germ cells. Parmentier, M., Libert, F., Schurmans, S., Schiffmann, S., Lefort, A., Eggerickx, D., Ledent, C., Mollereau, C., Gérard, C., Perret, J. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Stem cell self-renewal specified by JAK-STAT activation in response to a support cell cue. Kiger, A.A., Jones, D.L., Schulz, C., Rogers, M.B., Fuller, M.T. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
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