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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A novel, calcium-inhibitable casein kinase in Paramecium cells.

This is the first identification of a Ca2+-inhibitable casein kinase (CPK) which we have isolated from the 100000 x g supernatant of Paramecium cell homogenates. The 1000-fold enriched CPK activity depends on millimolar Mg2+ and is inhibited by low concentrations of heparin or by > or = 100 microM Ca2+. Enzyme activity is stimulated by polylysine or polyarginine with either casein or with specific casein kinase-2 (CK-2) peptide substrates (RRRDDDSDDD and RREEETEEE). The enzymic properties are similar with GTP instead of ATP. CPK does not undergo autophosphorylation. In gel kinase assays, enzyme activity is associated with a 36 kDa band. Calmodulin as another characteristic substrate for mammalian CK-2 has not been phosphorylated by this protein kinase. Besides casein, CPK phosphorylates in vitro the catalytic subunit of bovine brain calcineurin (CaN), a typical substrate of type 1 mammalian casein kinase (CK-1) in vitro. Again this phosphorylation is significantly reduced by Ca2+. Thus, CPK combines aspects of different casein kinases, but it is clearly different from any type known by its Ca2+ inhibition. Since CPK also phosphorylates the exocytosis-sensitive phosphoprotein, PP63, in Paramecium, which is known to be dephosphorylated by CaN, an antagonistic Ca2+-effect during phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cycles may be relevant for exocytosis regulation.[1]


  1. A novel, calcium-inhibitable casein kinase in Paramecium cells. Kissmehl, R., Treptau, T., Hauser, K., Plattner, H. FEBS Lett. (1997) [Pubmed]
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