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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E virus transmission in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia.

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia to geographically profile hepatitis E virus (HEV) prevalence in the riverine areas recognized as the foci of epidemic HEV transmission in 1987. Additionally, a contiguous, although distinct, population with no identifiable historical exposure to epidemic HEV was surveyed downstream for comparative purposes. Eight hundred eighty-five sera were assayed by enzyme immunoabsorbent assay for anti-HEV IgG and anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgG markers. A very high percent (90%) of both the outbreak and comparison populations was anti-HAV IgG positive by the age of nine years. In contrast, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in the outbreak area (50%) was significantly higher than in the comparison area (23%) (P < 0.0001). In both the outbreak and comparison areas, anti-HEV IgG prevalence increased with age ( < 0.0001), except for the group > or = 50 years of age. The prevalence (53%) of antibody to HEV in the population > or = seven years of age from the outbreak area (alive during the actual 1987 outbreak) was significantly (P < 0.0001) greater than among the children < seven years of age (born after the outbreak) (15%). However, anti-HEV IgG prevalence among the population from the comparison area did not differ significantly between the > or = seven- (23%) and < seven- (20%) year-old age groups. The percentage of anti-HEV IgG-positive individuals among males (47%) from the outbreak area was lower (P < 0.05) compared with females (55%). While overall usage of river water for drinking purposes was not universal, dependence on river water as a primary source was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in households from the outbreak area (60%) compared with the comparison area (30%). This study indicates persistence of an anti-HEV IgG response in a large percentage of the population seven years after an epidemic of HEV infections. Also, the relatively high prevalence (15%) of anti-HEV in children < seven years of age from the outbreak area reflects continuing, sporadic infections.[1]


  1. Epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E virus transmission in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. Corwin, A., Putri, M.P., Winarno, J., Lubis, I., Suparmanto, S., Sumardiati, A., Laras, K., Tan, R., Master, J., Warner, G., Wignall, F.S., Graham, R., Hyams, K.C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1997) [Pubmed]
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