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Chemical Compound Review

TetraSan     2-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-4-(2- ethoxy-4-tert...

Synonyms: Baroque, Etoxazole, Borneo, SureCN27300, CHEBI:39329, ...
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Disease relevance of Borneo


Psychiatry related information on Borneo

  • We quantified the allocation of net production to plant secondary metabolites (especially condensed tannins and lignins) to evaluate the investment into defense mechanisms of three tropical forest canopy species in Borneo vis-à-vis the resource availability hypothesis [6].

High impact information on Borneo

  • We found strong phylogeographic monophyly and large genetic distances between N. n. nebulosa (mainland) and N. n. diardi (Borneo; n = 3 individuals) with mtDNA (771 bp), nuclear DNA (3100 bp), and 51 microsatellite loci [7].
  • RESULTS: We analyzed the amount and patterns of molecular genetic variation in orang-utan populations using cellular DNA from orang-utans from two locations in Sumatra and nine locations-representing four isolated populations-in Borneo [8].
  • We studied 20 Dusun children from the East Malaysian state of Sabah (North Borneo) with a severe beta-thalassemia major phenotype, using a combination of Southern analysis, polymerase chain reaction analysis and direct sequencing [2].
  • A single, large deletion accounts for all the beta-globin gene mutations in twenty families from Sabah (North Borneo), Malaysia. Mutation in brief no. 240. Online [2].
  • Combined analysis of host mitochondrial DNA and SFV phylogeny provided evidence for the hypothesis of the repopulation of Sumatra by orangutans from Borneo [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Borneo

  • When toxicity to eggs was tested, the proportion of eggs that hatched for all acaricide treatments was significantly lower than the control, with etoxazole and propargite causing 100% mortality [10].
  • The objectives of this study were to determine stage-specific direct and residual efficacies of three acaricides (fenpropathrin, etoxazole, and propargite) against T. urticae, and the direct and residual toxicity of the acaricides to Orius insidiosus (Say) adults [10].

Biological context of Borneo

  • A comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences was undertaken for two genes among orangutans from Borneo and Sumatra [11].
  • Parsimony and neighbor-joining analyses grouped the haplotypes into five strongly supported assemblages representing China/Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and Siberut [12].
  • Changes in biomass, productivity and decomposition along topographical gradients under different geological conditions in tropical lower montane forests on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo [13].
  • With successful chromosome analysis of the flat-headed cat, Felis planiceps or Prionailurus planiceps, from the secluded river banks and lower mountain slopes of the jungles of Malasia, Borneo, and Sumatra, there remain only 5 rare and endangered species yet unstudied [14].
  • Our examples draw on biodiversity surveys in East Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) [15].

Anatomical context of Borneo


Associations of Borneo with other chemical compounds

  • Malays, Chinese, and Indians from Peninsular Malaysia; Ibans and Bidayuh from Sarawak State; Kadazans from Sabah State, Northern Borneo; and Bataks, Minangkabau, and Javanese from North Sumatra, Indonesia, were subtyped for transferrin C by polyacrylamide gel isoelectric focusing [21].
  • In this study, we compare the feeding techniques and tool-using skills used by orangutans to extract the nutritious seeds from Neesia fruits between Suaq Balimbing on Sumatra and Gunung Palung on Borneo, and map the distribution of Neesia tool use in Sumatran swamps [22].
  • Three molecular markers were used: an esterase locus, one microsatellite and a point mutation in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I. At a local level acaricide susceptibility tests were also performed using two acaricides: fenpyroximate (25 ppm) and etoxazole (3.33 ppm) [23].
  • We have developed baseline susceptibility values for four new acaricides: bifenazate, acequinocyl, spirodiclofen and etoxazole for eggs or adult females of a susceptible laboratory population of Panonychus ulmi (Koch) (Acari: Tetranychidae) [24].
  • Using fish (Oreochromis niloticus) as a suitable model organism, the aim of this study was to indicate whether etoxazole affects acetylcholinesterase and sodium potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase activities in the brain tissue in order to evaluate the impacts on neurotoxicity and ion transportation [19].

Gene context of Borneo


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Borneo

  • A cross-sectional survey was conducted in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia to geographically profile hepatitis E virus (HEV) prevalence in the riverine areas recognized as the foci of epidemic HEV transmission in 1987 [29].
  • We studied developmental changes in the facial morphology of the Borneo orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) by observing 79 individuals of various ages living in the Sepilok Orangutan Rehabilitation Centre (SORC) in Malaysia and in Japanese zoos [30].
  • BACKGROUND: About a fifth of malaria cases in 1999 for the Kapit division of Malaysian Borneo had routinely been identified by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae, although these infections appeared atypical and a nested PCR assay failed to identify P malariae DNA [31].


  1. Immune responses in human infections with Brugia malayi: specific cellular unresponsiveness to filarial antigens. Piessens, W.F., McGreevy, P.B., Piessens, P.W., McGreevy, M., Koiman, I., Saroso, J.S., Dennis, D.T. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  2. A single, large deletion accounts for all the beta-globin gene mutations in twenty families from Sabah (North Borneo), Malaysia. Mutation in brief no. 240. Online. Thong, M.K., Rudzki, Z., Hall, J., Tan, J.A., Chan, L.L., Yap, S.F. Hum. Mutat. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Leptospirosis in "Eco-Challenge" athletes, Malaysian Borneo, 2000. Sejvar, J., Bancroft, E., Winthrop, K., Bettinger, J., Bajani, M., Bragg, S., Shutt, K., Kaiser, R., Marano, N., Popovic, T., Tappero, J., Ashford, D., Mascola, L., Vugia, D., Perkins, B., Rosenstein, N. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Babinski's sign in Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque art. Massey, E.W. Arch. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Vancomycin use--an historical review. Griffith, R.S. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1984) [Pubmed]
  6. Allocation to defense or growth in dipterocarp forest seedlings in Borneo. Kurokawa, H., Kitahashi, Y., Koike, T., Lai, J., Nakashizuka, T. Oecologia (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Molecular evidence for species-level distinctions in clouded leopards. Buckley-Beason, V.A., Johnson, W.E., Nash, W.G., Stanyon, R., Menninger, J.C., Driscoll, C.A., Howard, J., Bush, M., Page, J.E., Roelke, M.E., Stone, G., Martelli, P.P., Wen, C., Ling, L., Duraisingam, R.K., Lam, P.V., O'brien, S.J. Curr. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Genomic differentiation among natural populations of orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus). Zhi, L., Karesh, W.B., Janczewski, D.N., Frazier-Taylor, H., Sajuthi, D., Gombek, F., Andau, M., Martenson, J.S., O'Brien, S.J. Curr. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. The phylogeography of orangutan foamy viruses supports the theory of ancient repopulation of Sumatra. Verschoor, E.J., Langenhuijzen, S., Bontjer, I., Fagrouch, Z., Niphuis, H., Warren, K.S., Eulenberger, K., Heeney, J.L. J. Virol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Toxicity of three acaricides to Tetranychus urticae (Tetranychidae: Acari) and Orius insidiosus (Anthocoridae: Hemiptera). Ashley, J.L., Herbert, D.A., Lewis, E.E., Brewster, C.C., Huckaba, R. J. Econ. Entomol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. mtDNA sequence diversity of orangutans from the islands of Borneo and Sumatra. Muir, C.C., Galdikas, B.M., Beckenbach, A.T. J. Mol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Phylogeographic analysis of pigtail macaque populations (Macaca nemestrina) inferred from mitochondrial DNA. Rosenblum, L.L., Supriatna, J., Melnick, D.J. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  13. Changes in biomass, productivity and decomposition along topographical gradients under different geological conditions in tropical lower montane forests on Mount Kinabalu, Borneo. Takyu, M., Aiba, S., Kitayama, K. Oecologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Chromosome identification of the flat-headed cat, Felis planiceps: one more down and five to go. Centerwall, W.R., Wurster-Hill, D.H., Maruska, E.J., Theobald, J.A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Recognizing local people's priorities for tropical forest biodiversity. Sheil, D., Puri, R., Wan, M., Basuki, I., van Heist, M., Liswanti, N., Rukmiyati, n.u.l.l., Rachmatika, I., Samsoedin, I. Ambio. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Localized hypoplasia of the primary canine in bonobos, orangutans, and gibbons. Skinner, M.F., Newell, E.A. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. Mode of attachment and lesions associated with trypanorhynch cestodes in the gastrointestinal tracts of two species of sharks collected from coastal waters of Borneo. Borucinska, J.D., Caira, J.N. J. Fish Dis. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Filarid parasites of South Kalimantan (Borneo) Indonesia. Wuchereria kalimantani sp. n. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the silvered leaf monkey, Presbytis cristatus Eschscholtz 1921. Palmieri, J.R., Purnomo, n.u.l.l., Dennis, D.T., Marwoto, H.A. J. Parasitol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Neurotoxicity evaluation of the organofluorine pesticide etoxazole in the brain of Oreochromis niloticus. Uner, N., Oruç, E., Sevgiler, Y. Drug and chemical toxicology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  20. The genotoxic effect of the new acaricide etoxazole. Rencüzoğullari, E., Ila, H.B., Kayraldiz, A., Arslan, M., Diler, S.B., Topaktaş, M. Genetika (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Transferrin C subtyping in Malaysians and in Indonesians from North Sumatra. Tan, S.G., Gan, Y.Y., Asuan, K. Hum. Genet. (1982) [Pubmed]
  22. Geographic variation in tool use on Neesia fruits in orangutans. Van Schaik, C.P., Knott, C.D. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Significance of habitat type for the genetic population structure of Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae). Osakabe, M., Goka, K., Toda, S., Shintaku, T., Amano, H. Exp. Appl. Acarol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  24. Baseline susceptibility and cross resistances of some new acaricides in the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi. Pree, D.J., Whitty, K.J., Van Driel, L. Exp. Appl. Acarol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of a new SNP c767A/T (Arg222Trp) in the candidate TSG FUS2 on human chromosome 3p21.3: prevalence in Asian populations and analysis of association with nasopharyngeal cancer. Duh, F.M., Fivash, M., Moody, M., Li Lung, M., Guo, X., Stanbridge, E., Dean, M., Voevoda, M., Hu, L.F., Kashuba, V., Zabarovsky, E.R., Qian, C.N., Godbole, S., Tean Teh, B., Lerman, M.I. Mol. Cell. Probes (2004) [Pubmed]
  26. High incidence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in native people of Sarawak, Borneo Island. Devi, B.C., Pisani, P., Tang, T.S., Parkin, D.M. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  27. Low prevalence of antibody to human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) in Kadazans. Yadav, M., Umamaheswari, S., Ablashi, D.V. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Molecular evidence of speciation between island and continental populations of Anopheles (Cellia) sundaicus (Diptera: Culicidae), a principal malaria vector taxon in Southeast Asia. Dusfour, I., Linton, Y.M., Cohuet, A., Harbach, R.E., Baimai, V., Trung, H.D., Seng, C.M., Matusop, A., Manguin, S. J. Med. Entomol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Epidemic and sporadic hepatitis E virus transmission in West Kalimantan (Borneo), Indonesia. Corwin, A., Putri, M.P., Winarno, J., Lubis, I., Suparmanto, S., Sumardiati, A., Laras, K., Tan, R., Master, J., Warner, G., Wignall, F.S., Graham, R., Hyams, K.C. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Developmental changes in the facial morphology of the Borneo orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus): possible signals in visual communication. Kuze, N., Malim, T.P., Kohshima, S. Am. J. Primatol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. A large focus of naturally acquired Plasmodium knowlesi infections in human beings. Singh, B., Kim Sung, L., Matusop, A., Radhakrishnan, A., Shamsul, S.S., Cox-Singh, J., Thomas, A., Conway, D.J. Lancet (2004) [Pubmed]
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