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Gene Review

PHGDH  -  phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 3-PGDH, 3PGDH, D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase, HEL-S-113, NLS, ...
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Disease relevance of PHGDH

  • The 3-PGDH mRNA was markedly expressed in human leukemias, lymphoma Sup-T1, colon adenocarcinoma COLO 320DM, epitheloid carcinoma HeLa S3, and murine lymphoma BW5147.G.1.4, but not in human leukemia K562 [1].
  • 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with West syndrome [2].
  • HTLV-III env gene products synthesized in E. coli are recognized by antibodies present in the sera of AIDS patients [3].
  • The splicing of the first and second leader exons of adenovirus late RNA was inhibited only by those sera that reacted with U1 RNP [4].
  • Mammalian Nova antigens (1 and 2) constitute an important family of regulators of RNA metabolism in neurons, first identified using sera from cancer patients with the autoimmune disorder paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus ataxia (POMA) [5].

Psychiatry related information on PHGDH

  • We analyzed sera of 50 consecutively hospitalized heroin-abuse patients for precipitins against several antigens [6].
  • Thus, normal subjects had Ab2 alpha activity that recognizes Id determinants in the framework region common among anti-DNA antibodies, whereas antiidiotypic antibodies in most SLE sera appear to show Ab 2 beta and Ab 2 gamma activity [7].
  • RESULTS: This assay showed that the sera of alcoholic cirrhotics contained both immunoglobulin (Ig) Gs and IgAs that recognized proteins modified by hydroxyethyl radicals, whereas practically no reaction was observed in the sera of healthy controls or cirrhotics without evidence of alcohol abuse [8].
  • Sera from 65 patients with spongiform virus encephalopathies (29 with kuru, 36 with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), 79 with other neurologic diseases, and 65 control subjects were examined for reactivity in immunoblots of preparations of myelinated axons and neurofilaments from mouse brain [9].
  • We selected 101 sera; 16 were obtained from normal donors with no known risk factors, and 85 were from patients with full-fledged AIDS (28 cases), AIDS-related complex (ARC, 22 cases), and healthy people at risk (homosexuals, intravenous [IV] drug users, relatives of AIDS patients; 35 cases) [10].

High impact information on PHGDH

  • A neuronal antigen (HuD) recognized by the sera of patients with antibody-associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis has been isolated by screening a lambda cerebellar expression library [11].
  • In experiments using these sera, we show that there is neither complete nor partial segregation of beta-tubulin isotypes: both interphase cytoskeletal and mitotic spindle microtubules are mixed copolymers of all expressed beta-tubulin isotypes [12].
  • To examine whether different isotypes are segregated into functionally distinct microtubules, we generated immune sera capable of discriminating among the various naturally occurring beta-tubulin isotypes [12].
  • In intact cells or isolated cell fractions, these sera stain the centromeres of mitotic chromosomes and discrete speckles (prekinetochores) in nuclei [13].
  • A wide variety of sera from hamsters and mice bearing SV40-induced tumors immunoprecipitated the 54K protein of SV40-transformed cells and murine embryonal carcinoma cells [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of PHGDH

  • In antibody absorption experiments, the virus chimaera inhibited neutralization of HIV-1 by antipeptide monoclonal antibodies specific for the gp41 epitope and significantly reduced the group specific neutralizing activity of HIV-1-positive human sera [15].
  • Interferon-gamma and IGIF were diminished in the sera of ICE-/- mice exposed to Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide [16].
  • Sera from HIV-1-infected patients and from goats immunized with polyacrylamide gel-purified HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120), native gp120, or gp120-derived recombinant peptides, showed marked heterogeneity in neutralizing activity against these closely related viruses [17].
  • Sera from patients with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis contain antibodies to glomerular heparan sulfate proteoglycan [18].
  • A rabbit antiserum raised against an NH2-terminal peptide, a well-characterized murine monoclonal antibody (mAb), and 14 human lupus sera with autoantibody to PCNA were analyzed for their reactivity with the constructs using both immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting techniques [19].

Biological context of PHGDH


Anatomical context of PHGDH

  • Taken together with the severe neurological impairment in our patients, the data presented in this paper suggest an important role for PHGDH activity and L-serine biosynthesis in the metabolism, development, and function of the central nervous system [23].
  • In man also, T-cell subsets have been identified using allo- and heteroimmune sera and, more recently, using monoclonal antibodies, which seem to identify helper and suppressor or cytotoxic subpopulations [24].
  • We report here that sera which block or reverse binding are strain-specific, indicating that the corresponding antigens on the surface of the infected erythrocytes are strain (isolate)-specific [25].
  • We have established an in vitro correlate of sequestration and used it to demonstrate that immune sera from repeatedly infected Aotus monkeys inhibit binding of infected erythrocytes to endothelial cells [25].
  • Using the same technique, we have defined here several sera recognizing a structure on monocytes similar to one of the alleles of the HLA-linked PL3 or secondary B-cell (SB) system, so far only recognized by cellular techniques [26].

Associations of PHGDH with chemical compounds


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of PHGDH

  • Immunoblotting studies showed a comparable reduction in the level of immunoreactive PHGDH in cells expressing the mutant enzyme [20].
  • All 50 AIDS patient sera obtained from different locations in the United States specifically recognized the bacterially synthesized envelope proteins, as judged by Western blots [3].
  • Here we have used a monoclonal anti-AChR antibody (ACR-24, gamma 1, kappa) in an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) to measure anti-AChR immunoglobulin in human sera [30].
  • We have now investigated the possibility that drug-specific IgE antibodies are involved by using an alcuronium-carrier complex in a radioimmunoassay with patients' sera [31].
  • Most ELISA-positive sera reacted with sporozoites by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) [32].


  1. Nucleotide sequence and differential expression of the human 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase gene. Cho, H.M., Jun, D.Y., Bae, M.A., Ahn, J.D., Kim, Y.H. Gene (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with West syndrome. Pineda, M., Vilaseca, M.A., Artuch, R., Santos, S., García González, M.M., Aracil, A., Van Schaftingen, E., Jaeken, J. Developmental medicine and child neurology. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. HTLV-III env gene products synthesized in E. coli are recognized by antibodies present in the sera of AIDS patients. Crowl, R., Ganguly, K., Gordon, M., Conroy, R., Schaber, M., Kramer, R., Shaw, G., Wong-Staal, F., Reddy, E.P. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  4. Splicing of messenger RNA precursors is inhibited by antisera to small nuclear ribonucleoprotein. Padgett, R.A., Mount, S.M., Steitz, J.A., Sharp, P.A. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Sequence-specific RNA binding by a Nova KH domain: implications for paraneoplastic disease and the fragile X syndrome. Lewis, H.A., Musunuru, K., Jensen, K.B., Edo, C., Chen, H., Darnell, R.B., Burley, S.K. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. High incidence of precipitins in sera of heroin addicts. Smith, W.R., Wells, I.D., Glauser, F.L., Novey, H.S. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  7. Binding specificity of antiidiotypic autoantibodies to anti-DNA antibodies in humans. Sasaki, T., Muryoi, T., Takai, O., Tamate, E., Saito, H., Yoshinaga, K. J. Clin. Invest. (1988) [Pubmed]
  8. Detection of antibodies against proteins modified by hydroxyethyl free radicals in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. Clot, P., Bellomo, G., Tabone, M., Aricò, S., Albano, E. Gastroenterology (1995) [Pubmed]
  9. The 200- and 150-kDa neurofilament proteins react with IgG autoantibodies from patients with kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and other neurologic diseases. Toh, B.H., Gibbs, C.J., Gajdusek, D.C., Goudsmit, J., Dahl, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  10. Spectrum of natural antibodies against five HTLV-III antigens in infected individuals: correlation of antibody prevalence with clinical status. Franchini, G., Robert-Guroff, M., Aldovini, A., Kan, N.C., Wong-Staal, F. Blood (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. HuD, a paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis antigen, contains RNA-binding domains and is homologous to Elav and Sex-lethal. Szabo, A., Dalmau, J., Manley, G., Rosenfeld, M., Wong, E., Henson, J., Posner, J.B., Furneaux, H.M. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. Free intermingling of mammalian beta-tubulin isotypes among functionally distinct microtubules. Lewis, S.A., Gu, W., Cowan, N.J. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  13. Human anticentromere antibodies: distribution, characterization of antigens, and effect on microtubule organization. Cox, J.V., Schenk, E.A., Olmsted, J.B. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a 54K dalton cellular SV40 tumor antigen present in SV40-transformed cells and uninfected embryonal carcinoma cells. Linzer, D.I., Levine, A.J. Cell (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. An engineered poliovirus chimaera elicits broadly reactive HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Evans, D.J., McKeating, J., Meredith, J.M., Burke, K.L., Katrak, K., John, A., Ferguson, M., Minor, P.D., Weiss, R.A., Almond, J.W. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of interferon-gamma inducing factor mediated by interleukin-1beta converting enzyme. Gu, Y., Kuida, K., Tsutsui, H., Ku, G., Hsiao, K., Fleming, M.A., Hayashi, N., Higashino, K., Okamura, H., Nakanishi, K., Kurimoto, M., Tanimoto, T., Flavell, R.A., Sato, V., Harding, M.W., Livingston, D.J., Su, M.S. Science (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Type-restricted neutralization of molecular clones of human immunodeficiency virus. Looney, D.J., Fisher, A.G., Putney, S.D., Rusche, J.R., Redfield, R.R., Burke, D.S., Gallo, R.C., Wong-Staal, F. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Sera from patients with poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis contain antibodies to glomerular heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Fillit, H., Damle, S.P., Gregory, J.D., Volin, C., Poon-King, T., Zabriskie, J. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Insights into native epitopes of proliferating cell nuclear antigen using recombinant DNA protein products. Huff, J.P., Roos, G., Peebles, C.L., Houghten, R., Sullivan, K.F., Tan, E.M. J. Exp. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. V490M, a common mutation in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency, causes enzyme deficiency by decreasing the yield of mature enzyme. Pind, S., Slominski, E., Mauthe, J., Pearlman, K., Swoboda, K.J., Wilkins, J.A., Sauder, P., Natowicz, M.R. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Assignment of human 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) to human chromosome band 1p12 by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Baek, J.Y., Jun, D.Y., Taub, D., Kim, Y.H. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Glutamate reduces secretion of l-serine in astrocytes isolated from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Yamagata, K., Shoji, Y., Terashima, T., Yokogoshi, H. Neuroscience (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Molecular characterization of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency--a neurometabolic disorder associated with reduced L-serine biosynthesis. Klomp, L.W., de Koning, T.J., Malingré, H.E., van Beurden, E.A., Brink, M., Opdam, F.L., Duran, M., Jaeken, J., Pineda, M., Van Maldergem, L., Poll-The, B.T., van den Berg, I.E., Berger, R. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Precursor and effector phenotypes of activated human T lymphocytes. Fainboim, L., Navarrete, C., Festenstein, H. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. Plasmodium falciparum strain-specific antibody blocks binding of infected erythrocytes to amelanotic melanoma cells. Udeinya, I.J., Miller, L.H., McGregor, I.A., Jensen, J.B. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  26. Recognition of a polymorphic monocyte antigen in HLA. van Leeuwen, A., Termijtelen, A., Shaw, S., van Rood, J.J. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterisation of an autoreactive conformational epitope on GAD65 recognised by the human monoclonal antibody b78 using a combination of phage display, in vitro mutagenesis and molecular modelling. O'Connor, K.H., Banga, J.P., Darmanin, C., El-Kabbani, O., Mackay, I.R., Rowley, M.J. J. Autoimmun. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Human myasthenic sera reduce acetylcholine sensitivity of human muscle cells in tissue culture. Bevan, S., Kullberg, R.W., Heinemann, S.F. Nature (1977) [Pubmed]
  29. Thymic factor in human sera demonstrable by a cyclic AMP assay. Astaldi, A., Astaldi, G.C., Schellekens, P.T., Eijswoogel, V.P. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Naturally occurring anti-idiotypic antibodies in myasthenia gravis patients. Dwyer, D.S., Bradley, R.J., Urquhart, C.K., Kearney, J.F. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  31. Substituted ammonium ions as allergenic determinants in drug allergy. Baldo, B.A., Fisher, M.M. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  32. Safety and immunogenicity in man of a synthetic peptide malaria vaccine against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites. Herrington, D.A., Clyde, D.F., Losonsky, G., Cortesia, M., Murphy, J.R., Davis, J., Baqar, S., Felix, A.M., Heimer, E.P., Gillessen, D. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
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