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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Role of protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) in the regulation of protein phosphatase-1 activity.

We have recently cloned from 3T3-L1 adipocytes a novel glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase-1, termed PTG (Printen, J. A., Brady, M. J., and Saltiel, A. R. (1997) Science 275, 1475-1478). Differentiation of 3T3-L1 fibroblasts into highly insulin-responsive adipocytes resulted in a marked increase in PTG expression. Immobilized glutathione S-transferase (GST)-PTG fusion protein specifically bound either PP1 or phosphorylase a. Addition of soluble GST-PTG to 3T3-L1 lysates increased PP1 activity against 32P-labeled phosphorylase a by decreasing the Km of PP1 for phosphorylase 5-fold, while having no effect on the Vmax of the dephosphorylation reaction. Alternatively, PTG did not affect PP1 activity against hormone-sensitive lipase. PTG was not a direct target of intracellular signaling, as insulin or forskolin treatment of cells did not activate a kinase capable of phosphorylating PTG in vivo or in vitro. Finally, PTG decreased the ability of DARPP-32 to inhibit PP1 activity from 3T3-L1 adipocyte lysates. These data cumulatively suggest that PTG increases PP1 activity against specific proteins by several distinct mechanisms.[1]


  1. Role of protein targeting to glycogen (PTG) in the regulation of protein phosphatase-1 activity. Brady, M.J., Printen, J.A., Mastick, C.C., Saltiel, A.R. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
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