The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The polarity of neurochemically defined myenteric neurons in the human colon.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Functional classes of enteric neurons in small mammals can be determined by neurochemical coding and axonal projections. The aim of this study was to describe the projections of vasoactive intestinal peptide ( VIP)-, tachykinin (TK)-, and calretinin-immunoreactive (IR) interneurons and circular muscle motor neurons in human colon. METHODS: Human colonic myenteric neurons were retrogradely filled with 1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DII) from either the myenteric plexus or the circular muscle layers in organotypic culture preparations. The preparations were then labeled with antisera, and the position and immunoreactivity of DII-filled neurons was recorded. RESULTS: Nine percent of circular muscle motor neurons were labeled with TK immunoreactivity and these projected orally; 22% were VIP-IR and projected anally. Fifty-one percent of myenteric neurons that projected anally to the myenteric ganglia were VIP-IR and none were TK-IR. In contrast, 23% of neurons projecting orally were TK-IR but only 2% were VIP-IR. Calretinin immunoreactivity was present in 23% of neurons projecting anally and 3% projecting orally within the myenteric plexus. Six percent of circular muscle motor neurons had Dogiel type II morphology, and 50% of these were TK-IR. CONCLUSIONS: Circular muscle motor neurons and myenteric interneurons with TK, VIP, and calretinin immunoreactivity in the human colon have distinct projections and polarity.[1]


  1. The polarity of neurochemically defined myenteric neurons in the human colon. Wattchow, D.A., Porter, A.J., Brookes, S.J., Costa, M. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities