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Gene Review

CALB2  -  calbindin 2

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: 29 kDa calbindin, CAB29, CAL2, CR, Calretinin
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Disease relevance of CALB2


Psychiatry related information on CALB2

  • In addition, four brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease were immunostained for calretinin [4].
  • We further demonstrated the selective sparing of the medium-sized, but not all the large-sized, CR+ striatal neurons in Huntington's disease [5].
  • In the present study, the relative densities of cells immunoreactive for the CBPs parvalbumnin (PV) and calretinin (CR) were determined in hippocampal tissue sections taken from patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression and from matched control subjects (15 per group) [6].

High impact information on CALB2


Chemical compound and disease context of CALB2


Biological context of CALB2

  • Most importantly, the comparison of CR and Calb domain organizations questions the value of homologous modeling of EF-hand proteins, and perhaps of other protein families [15].
  • Peak cell densities occurred in layer 2/upper layer 3 for CR+ neurons and in upper to midlayer 3 for CB+ cells [16].
  • Using antibodies directed against chick intestinal calbindin D28k, human calretinin cDNA clones were isolated from brain cDNA libraries [17].
  • In contrast, calretinin positive cells were not detected until 21 weeks of gestation and the immunoreactivity increased as the cerebellum became more mature [18].
  • We analyzed the distribution and typology of classes of neurons containing neurofilament protein or the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin in six neocortical regions of the dog [19].

Anatomical context of CALB2

  • These results indicate that different subpopulations of CR interneurons exist that are specialized for selective innervation of somatic or dendritic regions of certain pyramidal and nonpyramidal neurons [20].
  • The SMI32 antibodies (directed against the nonphosphorylated epitope) specifically labeled the CR cell bodies, dendrites, and proximal axons in a Golgilike fashion [21].
  • Calretinin immunoreactive structures in the human hippocampal formation [22].
  • In the present study, neurofilament protein, and the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin were used as neurochemical markers to study the differences among areas and subareas in the distributions of particular cell types or neuropil staining patterns [23].
  • Distinct bands of darkly stained calretinin-positive fibers occupied the innermost portion of the dentate molecular layer and the pyramidal cell layer of CA2 [22].

Associations of CALB2 with chemical compounds


Physical interactions of CALB2


Regulatory relationships of CALB2

  • In the present immunohistochemical study, we compared the distribution and relative density of the calretinin-expressing interneurons in the striata of four normal individuals and four patients with HD (grade 1 to 3) [30].
  • Twenty-three of the tumors expressed WT1 protein and the same number expressed calretinin, another marker of mesothelial differentiation [31].
  • Calretinin-positive pineal cells could readily be visualized from the day of birth (P0) onwards and coexpressed the intermediate filament (IF) protein vimentin [32].

Other interactions of CALB2


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of CALB2


  1. Calretinin and other mesothelioma markers in synovial sarcoma: analysis of antigenic similarities and differences with malignant mesothelioma. Miettinen, M., Limon, J., Niezabitowski, A., Lasota, J. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of calretinin, thrombomodulin, keratin 5, and mesothelin in lung carcinomas of different types: an immunohistochemical analysis of 596 tumors in comparison with epithelioid mesotheliomas of the pleura. Miettinen, M., Sarlomo-Rikala, M. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. The value of 'mesothelium-associated' antibodies in distinguishing between metastatic renal cell carcinomas and mesotheliomas. Osborn, M., Pelling, N., Walker, M.M., Fisher, C., Nicholson, A.G. Histopathology (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the normal human temporal cortex and in Alzheimer's disease. Fonseca, M., Soriano, E. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Chemical phenotype of calretinin interneurons in the human striatum. Cicchetti, F., Beach, T.G., Parent, A. Synapse (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. A selective decrease in the relative density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the hippocampus in schizophrenia. Zhang, Z.J., Reynolds, G.P. Schizophr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Calretinin modifies presynaptic calcium signaling in frog saccular hair cells. Edmonds, B., Reyes, R., Schwaller, B., Roberts, W.M. Nat. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. The polarity of neurochemically defined myenteric neurons in the human colon. Wattchow, D.A., Porter, A.J., Brookes, S.J., Costa, M. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Calretinin and calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity in the human gastrointestinal tract. Walters, J.R., Bishop, A.E., Facer, P., Lawson, E.M., Rogers, J.H., Polak, J.M. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  10. Subfield- and layer-specific changes in parvalbumin, calretinin and calbindin-D28K immunoreactivity in the entorhinal cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Mikkonen, M., Alafuzoff, I., Tapiola, T., Soininen, H., Miettinen, R. Neuroscience (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Calbindin-d(28k): a marker of recurrence for medulloblastomas. Pelc, K., Vincent, S., Ruchoux, M.M., Kiss, R., Pochet, R., Sariban, E., Decaestecker, C., Heizmann, C.W. Cancer (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Glyco- and immunohistochemical refinement of the differential diagnosis between mesothelioma and metastatic carcinoma and survival analysis of patients. Kayser, K., Böhm, G., Blum, S., Beyer, M., Zink, S., André, S., Gabius, H.J. J. Pathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Immunohistochemical analysis of peritoneal mesothelioma and primary and secondary serous carcinoma of the peritoneum: antibodies to estrogen and progesterone receptors are useful. Barnetson, R.J., Burnett, R.A., Downie, I., Harper, C.M., Roberts, F. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Sparing of striatal neurons coexpressing calretinin and substance P (NK1) receptor in Huntington's disease. Cicchetti, F., Gould, P.V., Parent, A. Brain Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  15. Calretinin and calbindin D28k have different domain organizations. Palczewska, M., Groves, P., Batta, G., Heise, B., Kuźnicki, J. Protein Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Local circuit neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (areas 24a,b,c, 25 and 32) in the monkey: I. Cell morphology and morphometrics. Gabbott, P.L., Bacon, S.J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Structure of the human brain calcium-binding protein calretinin and its expression in bacteria. Parmentier, M., Lefort, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Differential expression of calretinin, calbindin D28K and parvalbumin in the developing human cerebellum. Yew, D.T., Luo, C.B., Heizmann, C.W., Chan, W.Y. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1997) [Pubmed]
  19. Distribution of neuronal populations containing neurofilament protein and calcium-binding proteins in the canine neocortex: regional analysis and cell typology. Hof, P.R., Bogaert, Y.E., Rosenthal, R.E., Fiskum, G. J. Chem. Neuroanat. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Synaptic connections of calretinin-immunoreactive neurons in the human neocortex. del Río, M.R., DeFelipe, J. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  21. Cajal-Retzius neurons in human cerebral cortex at midgestation show immunoreactivity for neurofilament and calcium-binding proteins. Verney, C., Derer, P. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Calretinin immunoreactive structures in the human hippocampal formation. Nitsch, R., Ohm, T.G. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Neurofilament and calcium-binding proteins in the human cingulate cortex. Nimchinsky, E.A., Vogt, B.A., Morrison, J.H., Hof, P.R. J. Comp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  24. Colocalization of calbindin D-28k, calretinin, and GABA immunoreactivities in neurons of the human temporal cortex. del Río, M.R., DeFelipe, J. J. Comp. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  25. Chemical anatomy of the human ventral striatum and adjacent basal forebrain structures. Prensa, L., Richard, S., Parent, A. J. Comp. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Chemical anatomy of striatal interneurons in normal individuals and in patients with Huntington's disease. Cicchetti, F., Prensa, L., Wu, Y., Parent, A. Brain Res. Brain Res. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  27. Association between the calcium-binding protein calretinin and cytoskeletal components in the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line WiDr. Marilley, D., Schwaller, B. Exp. Cell Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  28. Electrotonic profile and passive propagation of synaptic potentials in three subpopulations of hippocampal CA1 interneurons. Emri, Z., Antal, K., Gulyás, A.I., Megías, M., Freund, T.F. Neuroscience (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Calretinin-like immunoreactivity in the optic tectum of the tench (Tinca tinca L.). Arévalo, R., Alonso, J.R., Porteros, A., Briñón, J.G., Crespo, C., Lara, J., Aijón, J. Brain Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Striatal interneurons in Huntington's disease: selective increase in the density of calretinin-immunoreactive medium-sized neurons. Cicchetti, F., Parent, A. Mov. Disord. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Adenomatoid tumors of the female and male genital tracts express WT1. Schwartz, E.J., Longacre, T.A. Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Developmental pattern of cell type-specific calretinin immunoreactivity in the postnatal gerbil pineal gland. Redecker, P. Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. Inhibitory networks in epilepsy-associated gangliogliomas and in the perilesional epileptic cortex. Aronica, E., Redeker, S., Boer, K., Spliet, W.G., van Rijen, P.C., Gorter, J.A., Troost, D. Epilepsy Res. (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Sarcomatoid mesothelioma and its histological mimics: a comparative immunohistochemical study. Lucas, D.R., Pass, H.I., Madan, S.K., Adsay, N.V., Wali, A., Tabaczka, P., Lonardo, F. Histopathology (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Thrombomodulin, calretinin and c-kit (CD117) expression in cardiac myxoma. Acebo, E., Val-Bernal, J.F., Gómez-Roman, J.J. Histol. Histopathol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. The human calbindin D28k (CALB1) and calretinin (CALB2) genes are located at 8q21.3----q22.1 and 16q22----q23, respectively, suggesting a common duplication with the carbonic anhydrase isozyme loci. Parmentier, M., Passage, E., Vassart, G., Mattei, M.G. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  37. Quantitative distribution of parvalbumin, calretinin, and calbindin D-28k immunoreactive neurons in the visual cortex of normal and Alzheimer cases. Leuba, G., Kraftsik, R., Saini, K. Exp. Neurol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Calretinin and other CaBPs in the nervous system. Rogers, J., Khan, M., Ellis, J. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  39. Expression of calretinin and other mesothelioma-related markers in thymic carcinoma and thymoma. Pan, C.C., Chen, P.C., Chou, T.Y., Chiang, H. Hum. Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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