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Chemical Compound Review

Perchlorate     perchlorate

Synonyms: OClO3, AG-D-93345, CHEBI:49706, CTK0H7695, LS-193718, ...
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Disease relevance of perchlorate

  • Perchlorate can also protect against inhibition of thyroid function and the resulting hypothyroidism caused by excess iodide, presumably by reducing the formation of an iodinated inhibitor [1].
  • Perchlorate has a fast turnover in the body and requires frequent daily doses for therapy of thyrotoxicosis [1].
  • The effect of inhibition of factor XIIIa with 2-(l-acetonylthio)-5-methylthiazolo[2,3-b]1,3,4-thiadiazo lium perchlorate (L-722,151) on coronary thrombolysis and reocclusion was studied in an acute dog model of electrically induced coronary thrombosis [2].
  • A fluorescent dye, diI (1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate), and a replication-deficient retrovirus (LZ10; Galileo et al. 1990) were employed as tracers [3].
  • Androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP) and non-prostate origin tumor cell lines (SNU449, MCF-7, HCT116, OVCAR-3, and Panc-1) were infected with the viral constructs, and perchlorate-sensitive (125)I uptake and NIS protein expression were measured [4].

Psychiatry related information on perchlorate

  • In one patient, a 31-year-old white male with severe mental retardation, administration of perchlorate caused discharge of 69% of the radioiodine accumulated in the thyroid gland [5].
  • The electrodes have a fast response time, submicromolar detection limits (5 x 10(-7) M perchlorate), and could be used over a wide pH range of 3.5-10 [6].

High impact information on perchlorate

  • Oocyte microinjection of an RNA transcript made in vitro from this cDNA clone elicited a more than 700-fold increase in perchlorate-sensitive Na+/I- symport activity over background [7].
  • Perchlorate and the thyroid gland [1].
  • Increasing the dielectric constant of an artificial bilayer increases its permeability to perchlorate or thiocyanate by a factor of 1000, to a value comparable to that of mitochondrial membranes [8].
  • Accumulation at sites of Heinz bodies is also shown by 1,'1-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate, a fluorescent lipid analogue that readily crosses membranes, but not by fluorescein-phosphatidylethanolamine, an analogue that is localized to the outer leaflet of the membrane [9].
  • The largest amount of thyroglobulin was reaccumulated in HID animals followed by the PTU/LID groups, whereas no reaccumulation was observed in the ClO4 group [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of perchlorate


Biological context of perchlorate

  • The apparent Kd of binding sites on the pigment for Cl- and for ClO4- was approximately 2 mM [16].
  • Data presented are important for assessing the environmental impact on perchlorate concentrations in milk and potential for relevance to human health [17].
  • Finally, the effect of perchlorate on synaptic responses was significantly reduced after induction of long-term potentiation [18].
  • To have a better understanding of the tangential cell migration in the cortex, we disturbed the migration by making a cut in the neocortex, and we labeled the migrating cells with 1,1'-dioctodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) in vivo and in vitro [19].
  • In the presence of perchlorate the kinetics show the resolution of the pK=9.3 of C(III) into two parts: (a) optical changes at 695 nm due to ligand interchange on the heme-iron, unaffected by perchlorate and (b), a kinetic change leading to biphasic oxidation of C(II), with pK=7 [20].

Anatomical context of perchlorate

  • METHODS: Human colonic myenteric neurons were retrogradely filled with 1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (DII) from either the myenteric plexus or the circular muscle layers in organotypic culture preparations [21].
  • METHODS: Human colonic circular muscle motor neurons were identified by retrograde tracing with 1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) applied to the circular muscle layer [22].
  • METHODS: The retrograde label 1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) was applied to different target layers of human small or large intestine [23].
  • RESULTS: 1,1'-Didodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indocarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) on the left side of the sphincter labeled descending motor neurons located up to 26 mm along the esophagus and locally (within 2 mm) and gastric motor neurons [24].
  • The ability to identify endothelial cells based on their increased metabolism of Ac-LDL was examined using Ac-LDL labeled with the fluorescent probe 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil-Ac-LDL) [25].

Associations of perchlorate with other chemical compounds

  • Since the salting-in agents guanidinium chloride, urea, and lithium perchlorate increase the surface tension of water, the salting-in phenomenon does not reflect easier cavity formation in water [26].
  • Thalamocortical axons were labeled with the lipophilic tracer 1,1'-dioctydecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) in aldehyde-fixed neonatal rat brains, and the same brains were also prepared for immunohistochemical localization of ECM molecules cytotactin and cytotactin-binding proteoglycan [27].
  • The stably transfected LNCaP cell line NP-1 showed perchlorate-sensitive, androgen-dependent iodide uptake in vitro that resulted in selective killing of these cells by 131I in an in vitro clonogenic assay [28].
  • Apolipoprotein E-free 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indocarbocyanine perchlorate-high density lipoprotein was found to be associated with the membrane of cultured liver parenchymal cells but was not taken up intracellularly, indicating a cholesterol exchange process occurring extracellularly at the plasma membrane [29].
  • Energy transfer was assessed using two donor-acceptor pairs, 5-[2-[(iodoacetyl)amino]ethyl] aminonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid and 3,3'-ditetradecyloxacarbocyanine perchlorate, or 5-iodoacetamidofluorescein and tetramethylrhodamine phosphatidylethanolamine [30].
  • In women with urinary iodine levels < 100 microg/L, the association between the logarithm of perchlorate and decreased T(4) was greater in smokers [regression coefficient (beta) = -1.66, p = 0.0005] than in nonsmokers (beta = -0.54, p = 0.04) [31].

Gene context of perchlorate


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of perchlorate

  • Immunosuppression by perchlorate [37].
  • Purkinje neurons in rat cerebellar slices injected with an oil drop saturated with 1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate [DiIC16(3) or DiI] to label the endoplasmic reticulum were observed by confocal microscopy [38].
  • Morphological evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy after labeling with acetylated low density lipoprotein labeled with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine perchlorate indicated the presence of an intact, metabolically active endothelial layer [39].
  • Uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl indocarbocyanine perchlorate-low density lipoprotein by both cell types was strongly inhibited by the presence of excess unlabeled low density lipoprotein in the (perfusion) medium [29].
  • This was tested by repeating the study using very localized injections of 1,1'-dioctodecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate or fluorescent microspheres into the tectum [40].


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