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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Direct synthesis of aflatoxin B1-N7 guanine adduct: a reference standard for biological monitoring of dietary aflatoxin exposure in molecular epidemiological studies.

Aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine and aflatoxin B1-human serum albumin adducts have been established as biomarkers of dietary aflatoxin exposure in epidemiological studies. Earlier chemical oxidants were used to synthesize aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide in vitro and its subsequent interaction with DNA or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide was used as a source of authentic aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine adduct. In the present communication we report a simple single step procedure for the synthesis of aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine adduct using free guanine and m-chloroperbenzoic acid as the chemical oxidant for the production of AFB1-8,9-epoxide. At a molar ratio of 1:1 of AFB1-8,9-epoxide and guanine the recovery of the AFB1-N7-guanine adduct was found to be 60% while at higher molar ratios (1:2 and 1:4) of guanine the recovery of the AFB1-N7-guanine adduct was found to be low (30-40%). HPLC analysis of the AFB1-N7 guanine adduct showed a retention time identical with the retention time of the AFB1-N7-guanine adduct synthesized using calf thymus DNA. TLC-fluorodensitometric analysis indicated that the Rf of the AFB1-N7-guanine adduct was zero. Spectral analysis of the adduct synthesized showed an excitation wavelength of 360 nm and emission wavelength at 440 nm in phosphate buffer (100 mM, pH 7.4). Further, the formation of the AFB1-N7-guanine adduct was confirmed by perchloric acid treatment resulting in the destruction of the adduct. The AFB1-N7-guanine adduct thus synthesized was stable in both acidic as well as lyophilized conditions over a period of 2 weeks. The antibody capture assay showed that the antibodies produced against the antigen BSA-guanine-N7-AFB1 also cross-reacted with calf thymus DNA-AFB1 adduct, indicating specificity to the guanine-N7-AFB1 moiety. The method developed may find immediate application as a source of authentic reference standard in molecular epidemiological studies.[1]


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