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MeSH Review

Reference Standards

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Disease relevance of Reference Standards


Psychiatry related information on Reference Standards


High impact information on Reference Standards


Chemical compound and disease context of Reference Standards


Biological context of Reference Standards


Anatomical context of Reference Standards

  • Results of restaging examinations were used as an independent reference standard for diagnosing progressive disease, and S100beta, MIA, LDH level, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined in venous blood just before restaging [22].
  • Using a modified Oldendorf technique, 14C-labeled glucose analogues with a 3H2O reference standard were introduced into the cerebral circulation via the common carotid artery, and the radioactivity of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex was counted and expressed in terms of a brain uptake index (BUI) [23].
  • The dilution curves of several plasmas drawn before and after TRH were parallel to those obtained with TSH standard preparation [24].
  • Rabbit skeletal-muscle troponin T was phosphorylated by a standard preparation of phosphorylase kinase [Cohen (1973) Eur. J. Biochem. 34, 1--14] and by fractions obtained after chromatography of phosphorylase kinase on phosphocellulose [25].
  • With bovine serum albumin as the reference standard, the armadillo salivary-gland glycoprotein, although containing no chromogenic amino acids and only small amounts of colour-yielding peptides [Chou & Goldstein (1960) Biochem. J. 75, 100-115], is highly reactive in the Lowry phenol protein assay [Wu & Pigman (1977) Biochem. J. 161, 37-47] [26].

Associations of Reference Standards with chemical compounds


Gene context of Reference Standards

  • Using reverse transcription-PCR, the relative expression of mRNA for both estrogen receptor (ER) beta and transforming growth factor beta1 was determined in each patient group and quantified against a known reference standard [31].
  • Our characterization of these enzyme levels provides a reference standard for normal cathepsin B and L activities in human tissues that should enhance the detection of their deregulation in disease states [32].
  • The parent compound 4 is a selective, orally bioavailable 5-LO inhibitor which can serve as a useful reference standard for in vivo pharmacological studies involving leukotriene-mediated phenonmena [33].
  • The chromatographic pattern of extracted placenta CRF, pregnancy serum CRF and CRF standard preparation was identical [34].
  • In addition to providing a useful reference standard for Tg antibody IgG subclass assays, VB/5 antibody and the hybridoma line provide a valuable starting point for detailed studies of Tg autoantibodies and the genes coding for the variable regions of their heavy and light chains [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Reference Standards


  1. Isotope-dilution assay for urinary methylmalonic acid in the diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency. A prospective clinical evaluation. Matchar, D.B., Feussner, J.R., Millington, D.S., Wilkinson, R.H., Watson, D.J., Gale, D. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  2. Direct measurement of the precursors of adrenocorticotropin in human plasma by two-site immunoradiometric assay. Crosby, S.R., Stewart, M.F., Ratcliffe, J.G., White, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Nucleosides with a twist. Can fixed forms of sugar ring pucker influence biological activity in nucleosides and oligonucleotides? Marquez, V.E., Siddiqui, M.A., Ezzitouni, A., Russ, P., Wang, J., Wagner, R.W., Matteucci, M.D. J. Med. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Pyridinylpiperazines, a new class of selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists. Saari, W.S., Halczenko, W., King, S.W., Huff, J.R., Guare, J.P., Hunt, C.A., Randall, W.C., Anderson, P.S., Lotti, V.J., Taylor, D.A. J. Med. Chem. (1983) [Pubmed]
  5. Efficacy of NY-198 against experimental Legionnaires disease. Kohno, S., Yamaguchi, K., Dohtsu, Y., Koga, H., Hayashi, T., Hirota, M., Saito, A., Hara, K. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  6. Pilot comparison of extended-release and standard preparations of divalproex sodium in patients with bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. Centorrino, F., Kelleher, J.P., Berry, J.M., Salvatore, P., Eakin, M., Fogarty, K.V., Fellman, V., Baldessarini, R.J. The American journal of psychiatry. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Delirium in mechanically ventilated patients: validity and reliability of the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). Ely, E.W., Inouye, S.K., Bernard, G.R., Gordon, S., Francis, J., May, L., Truman, B., Speroff, T., Gautam, S., Margolin, R., Hart, R.P., Dittus, R. JAMA (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Enhancement of IgE-mediated histamine release from human basophils by viruses: role of interferon. Ida, S., Hooks, J.J., Siraganian, R.P., Notkins, A.L. J. Exp. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  9. Glycosaminoglycans that bind cold-insoluble globulin in cell-substratum adhesion sites of murine fibroblasts. Laterra, J., Ansbacher, R., Culp, L.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  10. Quantitative in vivo assay of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor using cyclophosphamide-induced neutropenic mice. Hattori, K., Shimizu, K., Takahashi, M., Tamura, M., Oheda, M., Ohsawa, N., Ono, M. Blood (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. DNA histogram analysis of human hemopoietic cells. Barlogie, B., Spitzer, G., Hart, J.S., Johnston, D.A., Büchner, T., Schumann, J., Drewinko, B. Blood (1976) [Pubmed]
  12. Effects of different test conditions on the susceptibility of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae to amikacin. Hansen, K.T., Clark, R.B., Sanders, W.E. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Re-evaluating the role of dacarbazine in metastatic melanoma: what have we learned in 30 years? Eggermont, A.M., Kirkwood, J.M. Eur. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Eating patterns and obesity in children. The Bogalusa Heart Study. Nicklas, T.A., Yang, S.J., Baranowski, T., Zakeri, I., Berenson, G. American journal of preventive medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  15. Sensitivity and specificity of the semiquantitative latex agglutination D-dimer assay for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism as defined by computed tomographic angiography. Froehling, D.A., Elkin, P.L., Swensen, S.J., Heit, J.A., Pankratz, V.S., Ryu, J.H. Mayo Clin. Proc. (2004) [Pubmed]
  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles. Nargund, L.V., Reddy, G.R., Hariprasad, V. Journal of pharmaceutical sciences. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. The use of Sinemet CR in the management of mild to moderate Parkinson's disease. Rodnitzky, R.L. Neurology (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Structure of human chromosomes studied by atomic force microscopy. Tamayo, J. J. Struct. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Ticlopidine quantification in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Application to bioequivalence study. Borges, N.C., Mendes, G.D., Borges, A., Oliveira, S.E., Barrientos-Astigarraga, R.E., Nucci, G.D. Journal of mass spectrometry : JMS. (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Separation of phytic acid and other related inositol phosphates by high-performance ion chromatography and its applications. Chen, Q.C., Li, B.W. Journal of chromatography. A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. The assessment of the intrasubject variability in digoxin absorption in man from two oral dosage forms. Yacobi, A., Stoll, R.G., Chao, G.C., Schwartz, R.A., Weidler, D.J., Ayers, J.W., Sakmar, E., Hallmark, M., Wagner, J.G. Journal of clinical pharmacology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  22. S100-Beta, melanoma-inhibiting activity, and lactate dehydrogenase discriminate progressive from nonprogressive American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IV melanoma. Deichmann, M., Benner, A., Bock, M., Jäckel, A., Uhl, K., Waldmann, V., Näher, H. J. Clin. Oncol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Effects of oxygen saturation and pCO2 on brain uptake of glucose analogues in rabbits. Berson, F.G., Spatz, M., Klatzo, I. Stroke (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Thyrotropin secretion in patients with central hypothyroidism: evidence for reduced biological activity of immunoreactive thyrotropin. Faglia, G., Bitensky, L., Pinchera, A., Ferrari, C., Paracchi, A., Beck-Peccoz, P., Ambrosi, B., Spada, A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  25. Phosphorylase kinase phosphorylation of skeletal-muscle troponin T. Risnik, V.V., Dobrovolskii, A.B., Gusev, N.B., Severin, S.E. Biochem. J. (1980) [Pubmed]
  26. Polypeptide linkages and resulting structural features as powerful chromogenic factors in the Lowry phenol reaction. Studies on a glycoprotein containing no Lowry phenol-reactive amino acids and on its desialylated and deglycosylated products. Wu, A.M., Wu, J.C., Herp, A. Biochem. J. (1978) [Pubmed]
  27. Evaluation of a 'true' fractional removal rate of glucose in man by bolus and simulated-ramp increase of glucose. Rosenqvist, U., Licko, V., Karam, J.H. Diabetes (1976) [Pubmed]
  28. A similar 5'-flanking region is required for estrogen and progesterone induction of ovalbumin gene expression. Dean, D.C., Gope, R., Knoll, B.J., Riser, M.E., O'Malley, B.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Efficacy of diclofenac in ankylosing spondylitis. Calabro, J.J. Am. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  30. Intracardiac ultrasound determination of left ventricular volumes: in vitro and in vivo validation. Fisher, J.P., Wolfberg, C.A., Mikan, J.S., Kiernan, F.J., Fram, D.B., McKay, R.G., Gillam, L.D. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Increased expression of estrogen receptor beta mRNA in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer patients. Speirs, V., Malone, C., Walton, D.S., Kerin, M.J., Atkin, S.L. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Cysteine endopeptidase activity levels in normal human tissues, colorectal adenomas and carcinomas. Shuja, S., Sheahan, K., Murnane, M.J. Int. J. Cancer (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors: synthesis and structure-activity relationships of a series of 1-aryl-2H,4H-tetrahydro-1,2,4-triazin-3-ones. Bhatia, P.A., Brooks, C.D., Basha, A., Ratajczyk, J.D., Gunn, B.P., Bouska, J.B., Lanni, C., Young, P.R., Bell, R.L., Carter, G.W. J. Med. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  34. Corticotropin-releasing factor in humans. I. CRF stimulation in normals and CRF radioimmunoassay. Stalla, G.K., Stalla, J., Schopohl, J., von Werder, K., Müller, O.A. Horm. Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  35. A human-mouse hybridoma which secretes monoclonal thyroglobulin autoantibody with properties similar to those of the donor patient's serum autoantibody. Petersen, V.B., Fukuma, N., McLachlan, S.M., Bradbury, J., Beever, K., Devey, M.E., Bleasdale-Barr, K.M., Phillips, D.I., Baylis, P., Ryley, H. Autoimmunity (1989) [Pubmed]
  36. Mass spectrometric characterization of nicked fragments of the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin. Liu, C., Bowers, L.D. Clin. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Coxsackie-and-adenovirus receptor mRNA expression in human heart failure. Sasse, A., Wallich, M., Ding, Z., Goedecke, A., Schrader, J. The journal of gene medicine. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Predictive equations for total lung capacity and residual volume calculated from radiographs in a random sample of the Michigan population. Kilburn, K.H., Warshaw, R.H., Thornton, J.C., Thornton, K., Miller, A. Thorax (1992) [Pubmed]
  39. Prostatic biopsy directed with endorectal MR spectroscopic imaging findings in patients with elevated prostate specific antigen levels and prior negative biopsy findings: early experience. Prando, A., Kurhanewicz, J., Borges, A.P., Oliveira, E.M., Figueiredo, E. Radiology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Correlation between bioassay and radioimmunoassay for erythropoietin in human serum and urine concentrates. Cohen, R.A., Clemons, G., Ebbe, S. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
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