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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Association of tissue factor pathway inhibitor with human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a serine protease inhibitor of the extrinsic coagulation system, synthesized in endothelial cells, which has recently been shown to play an important role in the regulation of activated coagulation factors at the endothelial cell surface. In the present study we investigated the subcellular localization and metabolism of TFPI in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Immunocytochemical labeling of HUVEC with anti-TFPI showed specific labeling associated with the cell surface and with many intracellular organelles including the Golgi complex. Further characterization of these organelles was performed by colocalizing the anti-TFPI with 3-(2, 4-dinitroanilino)'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP; to demonstrate low pH), mannose phosphate receptor (endosomes), and LAMP 1 (late endocytic compartments). TFPI also colocalized with antibodies to the human transferrin receptor, a marker for early endocytic, recycling compartment. Endogenous TFPI colocalized with biotin in intracellular vesicles during endocytosis after biotinylation of the cell surface, which indicated that TFPI was being co-internalized with the surface biotin. The binding of exogenously added 125I-TFPI increased linearly to HUVEC over the concentration range of 0 to 32 nmol/L without saturation, the binding was not affected by up to a thousand-fold molar excess of unlabeled TFPI, and heparin inhibited the binding dose dependently. An intact C-terminal domain was important for the interaction between TFPI and the cell surface of HUVEC, because less than 10% of a C-terminal truncated form of TFPI (TFPI1-161) was bound after addition of equimolar concentrations of full-length TFPI. Exogenously added 125I-TFPI was not degraded in HUVEC during 4 hours at 37 degrees C. The presence of TFPI in endocytic and recycling compartments support the hypothesis that endogenous, membrane-anchored TFPI could be internalized for subsequent recycling back to the cell surface.[1]


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