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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Recovery of Ca2+ pools and growth in Ca2+ pool-depleted cells is mediated by specific epoxyeicosatrienoic acids derived from arachidonic acid.

Depletion of Ca2+ pools using the irreversible Ca2+ pump blocker, thapsigargin, induces DDT1MF-2 smooth muscle cells to enter a stable nonproliferative state. Reversal of this state can be mediated by high (20%) serum treatment, which induces new Ca2+ pump protein, return of Ca2+ pools, and reentry of cells into the cell cycle; the effect of serum can be mimicked by the essential fatty acids (EFA), arachidonic, linoleic, and alpha-linolenic acids (Graber, M.N., Alfonso, A., and Gill, D.L., (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 883-888). The possible requirement for EFA metabolism in inducing recovery of Ca2+ pool-depleted growth-arrested cells was investigated. Neither cyclooxygenase or lipoxygenase inhibitors had any effect on arachidonic acid-induced growth recovery of thapsigargin-treated cells. In contrast, the cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase inhibitors, SKF525A and metyrapone, substantially reduced arachidonic acid-induced recovery of growth while having minimal effects on control cell growth. Both epoxygenase inhibitors completely prevented the arachidonic acid-induced recovery of bradykinin-releasable Ca2+-pumping pools, whereas cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors had no effect. The effectiveness of the four cytochrome P-450 metabolites of arachidonic acid on recovery of Ca2+ pools were compared; 8,9- and 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) at 1.5 microM were completely effective in recovering agonist-sensitive Ca2+ pools, whereas the 5,6- and 14,15-EETs were without effect. SKF525A did not block the action of 8,9- or 11, 12-EET indicating further P-450 metabolism was not required. Hydration of the active EET molecules prevented Ca2+ pool recovery since the dihydroxy-derivatives of both 8,9- and 11,12-EET were ineffective. The specificity of effectiveness among EET molecules for subsequent resumption of growth of thapsigargin-treated cells was the same as for Ca2+ pool recovery. Significantly, the P-450 inhibitors, SKF525A and metyrapone, both prevented the action of 20% serum in inducing recovery of thapsigargin-treated cells, whereas cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors were ineffective, indicating that EFAs are the active component within serum that is responsible for recovery of Ca2+ pool-depleted cells. The specific action of EETs in mediating recovery of Ca2+ pools and growth of thapsigargin-treated cells represents not only a novel action of epoxygenase products from EFAs, but also a potentially significant new signaling pathway that may effect translational control and regulate transition from a stationary to proliferative growth state.[1]


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