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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S ADP-ribosylates Ras at multiple sites.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S (ExoS) ADP-ribosylated Ras to a stoichiometry of approximately 2 molecules of ADP-ribose incorporated per molecule of Ras, which suggested that ExoS could ADP-ribosylate Ras at more than one arginine residue. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that ADP-ribosylated Ras possessed a slower mobility than non-ADP-ribosylated Ras. Analysis of the ADP-ribosylation of in vitro transcribed/translated Ras by ExoS identified two electrophoretically shifted forms of Ras, which was consistent with the ADP-ribosylation of Ras at two distinct arginine residues. Analysis of ADP-ribosylated in vitro transcribed/translated Ras mutants possessing individual Arg-to-Ala substitutions showed that Arg-41 was the preferred site of ADP-ribosylation and that the second ADP-ribosylation event occurred at a slower rate than the ADP-ribosylation at Arg-41, but did not occur at a specific arginine residue. Analysis of bacterially expressed wild-type RasDeltaCAAX and RasDeltaCAAXR41K supported the conclusion that Arg-41 was the preferred site of ADP-ribosylation. Arg-41 is located adjacent to the switch 1 region of Ras, which is involved in effector interactions. Introduction of ExoS into eukaryotic cells inhibited Ras-mediated eukaryotic signal transduction since infection of PC-12 cells with an ExoS-producing strain of P. aeruginosa inhibited nerve growth factor-stimulated neurite formation. This is the first demonstration that ExoS disrupts a Ras-mediated signal transduction pathway.[1]


  1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S ADP-ribosylates Ras at multiple sites. Ganesan, A.K., Frank, D.W., Misra, R.P., Schmidt, G., Barbieri, J.T. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
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