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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Population pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime administered by continuous infusion in clinically ill adult patients.

Ceftizoxime is a widely used beta-lactam antimicrobial agent, but pharmacokinetic data for use with clinically ill patients are lacking. We studied the population pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime in 72 clinically ill patients at a community-based, university-affiliated hospital. A population pharmacokinetic model for ceftizoxime was created by using a prospective observational design. Ceftizoxime was administered by continuous infusion to treat patients with proven or suspected bacterial infections. While the patients were receiving infusions of ceftizoxime, serum samples were collected for pharmacokinetic analysis with the nonlinear mixed-effect modeling program NONMEM. In addition to clearance and volume of distribution, various comorbidities were examined for their influence on the kinetics. All 72 subjects completed the study, and 114 serum samples were collected. Several demographic and comorbidity variables, namely, age, weight, serum creatinine levels, congestive heart failure, and long-term ventilator dependency, had a significant impact on the estimate for ceftizoxime clearance. A mixture model, or two populations for estimation of ceftizoxime clearance, was discovered. One population presented with an additive clearance component of 1.6 liters per h. In addition, a maximizer function for serum creatinine levels was found. In summary, two models for ceftizoxime clearance, mixture and nonmixture, were found and are presented. Clearance for ceftizoxime can be estimated with commonly available clinical information and the models presented. From the clearance estimates, the dose of ceftizoxime to maintain the desired concentration in serum can be determined. Work is needed to validate the model for drug clearance and to evaluate its predictive performance.[1]


  1. Population pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime administered by continuous infusion in clinically ill adult patients. Facca, B., Frame, B., Triesenberg, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
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