The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Ventilators, Mechanical

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Ventilators, Mechanical

  • CONCLUSIONS: For patients with respiratory failure, early identification of adrenal insufficiency and appropriate supplementation with stress dose hydrocortisone increase the success of ventilator weaning and shortens the weaning period [1].
  • They were then ventilated with 100% O2 at control ventilation, and at six times control ventilation without hypocapnia ("isocapnic hyperpnea") for at least 42 min at each ventilator setting [2].
  • Baseline VWF levels were similar in patients with and without sepsis, and were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (435 +/- 333%) versus survivors (306 +/- 209%) even when controlling for severity of illness, sepsis, and ventilator strategy (increased odds ratio of death of 1.6 per SD size increase in VWF; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.1) [3].
  • Diminished activation of NF-kappaB or Akt, but not p38, in the early postintubation period was associated with less time on the ventilator and improved survival in critically ill patients with ALI [4].
  • CONCLUSIONS--Potassium hydroxide preparation of elastin fibres is a rapid and simple specific marker of ventilator associated pneumonia and may be a useful technique to help diagnose pulmonary infections in mechanically ventilated patients, although this assessment is at present limited to patients without adult respiratory distress syndrome [5].

High impact information on Ventilators, Mechanical

  • RESULTS: The median time to ventilator independence was 36 days in the dexamethasone-placebo group and 37 days in the placebo-dexamethasone group [6].
  • Preterm infants who were making expiratory efforts against ventilator inflation were randomised to be paralysed with pancuronium or to receive no paralysing agent during ventilation [7].
  • Ventilator treatment with supraphysiological O2 concentrations (hyperoxia) contribute to the development of BPD [8].
  • His hospital course was gravely precipitous with onset of coma, ventilator dependence, loss of cortical and brainstem functions within ten days of admission [9].
  • He showed no ventilator response during a CO2 retention test (PaCO2 62 mm Hg, PaO2 82 mm Hg), while consciousness was preserved until death [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ventilators, Mechanical


Biological context of Ventilators, Mechanical

  • Mongrel dogs (n = 17) were anesthetized, placed on a ventilator (40% O2), and surgically prepared for hemodynamic and blood gas measurements; venous admixture (QVA/QT) and static lung compliance (Cstat) were calculated [16].
  • The ventilator output was held constant at a mean tidal volume (VT) of 1.0 l and breath duration of 4.6 s and PET,CO2 was increased 1-1.5 mmHg/min (via increased inspired CO2 fraction, FI,CO2) until inspiratory muscle activity returned [17].
  • RESULTS: We found five variables to have independent prognostic value in predicting graft survival after primary liver transplantation: (1) donor age, (2) recipient age, (3) donor sodium, (4) recipient creatinine, and (5) recipient ventilator requirement pretransplant [18].
  • We prospectively studied 24 consecutively admitted neonates (birth weight less than 1350 gm, gestational age less than 31 weeks, ventilator dependent for greater than 24 hours after birth), who were eligible to receive 2000 IU supplemental vitamin A by intramuscular injection on postnatal day 1 and on alternate days thereafter for 28 days [19].
  • An increase in PaCO2 was obtained by inhalation of CO2 and, if necessary, by reducing the ventilator rate [20].

Anatomical context of Ventilators, Mechanical

  • 2. The two vessel occlusion model used in the study was a modification of the model described in the literature, whereby we have obviated the need to use a muscle relaxant and intubate the trachea to provide ventilatory support by providing a tight fitting face mask attached to the ventilator [21].
  • However, CO2 rebreathing from the ventilator circuit or mask may impair CO2 elimination and load the ventilatory muscles [22].
  • In each animal the crossed phrenic phenomenon was induced by left C2 spinal cord hemisection and turning off the ventilator [23].
  • To determine whether this reflex tachypnea is triggered by pulmonary C-fibers rather than by afferents further downstream, we separately perfused the pulmonary and systemic circulations in dogs anesthetized with either halothane or alpha-chloralose as the lungs were ventilated with a servo-controlled ventilator driven by phrenic nerve activity [24].
  • After confirmation of patency of the carotid artery, patients were anesthetized with thiopental (3 to 4 mg/kg) for 48 hours, with respiratory maintenance by ventilator [25].

Associations of Ventilators, Mechanical with chemical compounds

  • Days on ventilator were 13.5 versus 9.1, (p = 0.06), ICU lengths of stay were 14.7 versus 10.2 (p = 0.06), and hospital lengths of stay were 27.8 versus 20.0 (p = 0.029) for the H2 blocker group and sucralfate group, respectively [26].
  • Albuterol delivery from a MDI was increased when the ventilator circuit contained 80% helium and 20% oxygen (He-O2 80/20) versus O2: 46.7 +/- 3.3 versus 30.2 +/- 1.3 (SE)% of the nominal dose (p < 0.001)-the difference was mainly due to decreased drug deposition in the spacer chamber, mean 39.2% and 55.2%, respectively (p < 0.001) [27].
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The successful ventilator weaning percentage was significantly higher in the adequate adrenal reserve group (88.4%) and in the stress dose hydrocortisone treatment group (91.4%) than in the placebo group (68.6%) [1].
  • Improved arterial oxygenation after oleic acid lung injury in the pig using a computer-controlled mechanical ventilator [28].
  • HCW exposure to ribavirin during aerosol delivery by ventilator or vacuum exhaust hood system was substantially lower than HCW exposure during aerosol delivery by oxygen hood in rooms with adequate ventilation [29].

Gene context of Ventilators, Mechanical

  • On a separate occasion, subjects exercised for the same duration and power output as CTRL (13.2 +/- 0.9 min, 292 W), but force output of the inspiratory muscles was reduced (-56% versus CTRL) using a proportional assist ventilator (PAV) [30].
  • Interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels were also associated with a significant decrease in ventilator free and organ failure free days [31].
  • We have found that activated clotting and t-PA plasma concentrations are positively correlated with arterial-to-alveolar oxygen tension ratio and ventilator efficiency index values [32].
  • TNF alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations were significantly related to gestational age and duration of supplemental oxygen; TNF alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations also correlated with length of time on the ventilator [33].
  • These combinations ranged from those of a severe exacerbation of COPD, to a mild condition reflecting the optimal triggering conditions a ventilator is likely to encounter [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ventilators, Mechanical

  • When the nebulizer was operated with O2, greater albuterol delivery was achieved when the ventilator circuit contained He-O2 rather than O2 [27].
  • Clinical, microbiological and pharmacokinetic studies were carried out after 1 or 2 g intramuscular injections bd of cefodizime (HR 221), a new aminothiazolyl cephalosporin, in 41 patients hospitalized for acute purulent exacerbations of chronic respirators disease [35].
  • The pressure ventilator on this device was calibrated (peak inspiratory pressure, VT vs compliance) using a Dixie Test Lung, allowing indirect assessment of pulmonary compliance during CPR [36].
  • The best ventilator settings for CO2 elimination during high-frequency jet ventilation (HFJV) have not been so clearly defined [37].
  • Insertion of unidirectional values into the chest tube drainage apparatus, which were closed synchronously each time the ventilator cycled to the inspiratory phase, allowed effective alveolar ventilation to be achieved with subsequent reduction of arterial CO2 to previous levels [38].


  1. Association between adrenal insufficiency and ventilator weaning. Huang, C.J., Lin, H.C. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. Isocapnic hyperpnea accelerates carbon monoxide elimination. Fisher, J.A., Rucker, J., Sommer, L.Z., Vesely, A., Lavine, E., Greenwald, Y., Volgyesi, G., Fedorko, L., Iscoe, S. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Significance of von Willebrand factor in septic and nonseptic patients with acute lung injury. Ware, L.B., Eisner, M.D., Thompson, B.T., Parsons, P.E., Matthay, M.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  4. Early alterations in neutrophil activation are associated with outcome in acute lung injury. Yang, K.Y., Arcaroli, J.J., Abraham, E. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Use of elastin fibre detection in the diagnosis of ventilator associated pneumonia. el-Ebiary, M., Torres, A., González, J., Martos, A., Puig de la Bellacasa, J., Ferrer, M., Rodriguez-Roisin, R. Thorax (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. A multicenter trial of two dexamethasone regimens in ventilator-dependent premature infants. Papile, L.A., Tyson, J.E., Stoll, B.J., Wright, L.L., Donovan, E.F., Bauer, C.R., Krause-Steinrauf, H., Verter, J., Korones, S.B., Lemons, J.A., Fanaroff, A.A., Stevenson, D.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Pancuronium prevents pneumothoraces in ventilated premature babies who actively expire against positive pressure inflation. Greenough, A., Wood, S., Morley, C.J., Davis, J.A. Lancet (1984) [Pubmed]
  8. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factors in hyperoxia through prolyl 4-hydroxylase blockade in cells and explants of primate lung. Asikainen, T.M., Schneider, B.K., Waleh, N.S., Clyman, R.I., Ho, W.B., Flippin, L.A., Günzler, V., White, C.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Fatal fulminant pan-meningo-polioencephalitis due to West Nile virus. Omalu, B.I., Shakir, A.A., Wang, G., Lipkin, W.I., Wiley, C.A. Brain Pathol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  10. Respiratory failure and unilateral caudal brainstem infarction. Bogousslavsky, J., Khurana, R., Deruaz, J.P., Hornung, J.P., Regli, F., Janzer, R., Perret, C. Ann. Neurol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  11. Population pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime administered by continuous infusion in clinically ill adult patients. Facca, B., Frame, B., Triesenberg, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. A new ventilator improves CO2 removal in newborn lambs with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Schnitzer, J.J., Thompson, J.E., Hedrick, H.L. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. A randomized, placebo-controlled GH trial in very preterm infants who were at risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia and were treated with dexamethasone. Huysman, M.W., Hop, W.C., Cromme-Dijkhuis, A.H., Sauer, P.J., Hokken-Koelega, A.C. Pediatr. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Heliox improves hemodynamics in mechanically ventilated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with systolic pressure variations. Lee, D.L., Lee, H., Chang, H.W., Chang, A.Y., Lin, S.L., Huang, Y.C. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Weekly ventilator circuit changes. A strategy to reduce costs without affecting pneumonia rates. Hess, D., Burns, E., Romagnoli, D., Kacmarek, R.M. Anesthesiology (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Comparison of exogenous surfactants in the treatment of wood smoke inhalation. Nieman, G.F., Paskanik, A.M., Fluck, R.R., Clark, W.R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. Apnoea following normocapnic mechanical ventilation in awake mammals: a demonstration of control system inertia. Leevers, A.M., Simon, P.M., Xi, L., Dempsey, J.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Preoperative factors associated with outcome and their impact on resource use in 1148 consecutive primary liver transplants. Markmann, J.F., Markmann, J.W., Markmann, D.A., Bacquerizo, A., Singer, J., Holt, C.D., Gornbein, J., Yersiz, H., Morrissey, M., Lerner, S.M., McDiarmid, S.V., Busuttil, R.W. Transplantation (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Plasma retinol-binding protein response to vitamin A administration in infants susceptible to bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Shenai, J.P., Rush, M.G., Stahlman, M.T., Chytil, F. J. Pediatr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  20. Qualitative comparison of carbon dioxide-induced change in cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy versus jugular venous oxygen saturation in adults with acute brain disease. Tateishi, A., Maekawa, T., Soejima, Y., Sadamitsu, D., Yamamoto, M., Matsushita, M., Nakashima, K. Crit. Care Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Neuroprotective efficacy of lifarizine (RS-87476) in a simplified rat survival model of 2 vessel occlusion. McBean, D.E., Winters, V., Wilson, A.D., Oswald, C.B., Alps, B.J., Armstrong, J.M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  22. Position of exhalation port and mask design affect CO2 rebreathing during noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Schettino, G.P., Chatmongkolchart, S., Hess, D.R., Kacmarek, R.M. Crit. Care Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  23. Quantitative assessment of the effect of chronic phrenicotomy on the induction of the crossed phrenic phenomenon. Liou, W.W., Goshgarian, H.G. Exp. Neurol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  24. Rapid shallow breathing evoked by capsaicin from isolated pulmonary circulation. Schertel, E.R., Adams, L., Schneider, D.A., Smith, K.S., Green, J.F. J. Appl. Physiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. Barbiturate therapy in the postoperative endarterectomy patient with a neurologic deficit. Markowitz, I.P., Adinolfi, M.F., Kerstein, M.D. Am. J. Surg. (1984) [Pubmed]
  26. Optimal therapy for stress gastritis. Maier, R.V., Mitchell, D., Gentilello, L. Ann. Surg. (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Improvement in aerosol delivery with helium-oxygen mixtures during mechanical ventilation. Goode, M.L., Fink, J.B., Dhand, R., Tobin, M.J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  28. Improved arterial oxygenation after oleic acid lung injury in the pig using a computer-controlled mechanical ventilator. Lefevre, G.R., Kowalski, S.E., Girling, L.G., Thiessen, D.B., Mutch, W.A. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Exposure of health care workers to ribavirin during therapy for respiratory syncytial virus infections. Bradley, J.S., Connor, J.D., Compogiannis, L.S., Eiger, L.L. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1990) [Pubmed]
  30. Effect of inspiratory muscle work on peripheral fatigue of locomotor muscles in healthy humans. Romer, L.M., Lovering, A.T., Haverkamp, H.C., Pegelow, D.F., Dempsey, J.A. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Lower tidal volume ventilation and plasma cytokine markers of inflammation in patients with acute lung injury. Parsons, P.E., Eisner, M.D., Thompson, B.T., Matthay, M.A., Ancukiewicz, M., Bernard, G.R., Wheeler, A.P. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Increased tissue-type plasminogen activator antigen release is not accompanied by increased systemic fibrinolytic activity in severe neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Brus, F., Oetomo, S.B., Schieving, J., Groothuis, E., Okken, A., van Oeveren, W. Pediatr. Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Early increase of TNF alpha and IL-6 in tracheobronchial aspirate fluid indicator of subsequent chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Jónsson, B., Tullus, K., Brauner, A., Lu, Y., Noack, G. Archives of disease in childhood. Fetal and neonatal edition. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Noninvasive ventilator triggering in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A test lung comparison. Stell, I.M., Paul, G., Lee, K.C., Ponte, J., Moxham, J. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  35. Cefodizime in acute purulent exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease. Maesen, F.P., Davies, B.I., Baur, C., Sumajow, C.A. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  36. Measurement of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Ornato, J.P., Bryson, B.L., Donovan, P.J., Farquharson, R.R., Jaeger, C. Crit. Care Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  37. Driving pressure and arterial carbon dioxide tension during high-frequency jet ventilation in postoperative patients. Bayly, R., Sladen, A., Tyler, I.L., Echegaray, R.F., Klain, M., Guntupalli, K. Crit. Care Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  38. Intermittent inspiratory chest tube occlusion to limit bronchopleural cutaneous airleaks. Gallagher, T.J., Smith, R.A., Kirby, R.R., Civetta, J.M. Crit. Care Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities