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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Augmentation of IL-2 activated natural killer cell adoptive immunotherapy with cyclophosphamide.

We have previously documented that adoptively transferred, IL-2 activated natural killer (A-NK) cells can accumulate within established pulmonary metastases. Since we have observed that increases in the accumulation of A-NK cells do not always lead to increases in therapeutic efficacy, we examined the ability of cyclophosphamide to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of A-NK cells. Animals with established B16 melanoma or Lewis lung carcinoma pulmonary metastases were treated with A-NK cell adoptive immunotherapy, either alone or following treatment with chemotherapeutic doses of cyclophosphamide. Adoptive immunotherapy studies with A-NK cells yielded at most a 30% reduction in the number of pulmonary metastases; however, cyclophosphamide (300 mg/kg) consistently reduced the size of metastatic colonies. In contrast, the combination therapy of A-NK cells plus cyclophosphamide was more effective than adoptive immunotherapy alone. In addition, polyethylene glycol IL-2 is superior to IL-2 in these studies. CONCLUSIONS: Our studies suggest that chemoimmunotherapy with A-NK cells plus cyclophosphamide may be more effective than adoptive immunotherapy alone since it results in the reduction in both the size and number of pulmonary metastases.[1]


  1. Augmentation of IL-2 activated natural killer cell adoptive immunotherapy with cyclophosphamide. Goldfarb, R.H., Ohashi, M., Brunson, K.W., Kirii, Y., Kotera, Y., Basse, P.H., Kitson, R.P. Anticancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
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