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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The association of estrogen replacement therapy and the Raynaud phenomenon in postmenopausal women.

BACKGROUND: Hormonal factors may play an important role in the pathophysiology of the Raynaud phenomenon. Experimental studies have shown an increased vasoconstrictor response to estrogen, a response that can be prevented by the addition of progesterone. OBJECTIVE: To measure the association between estrogen replacement therapy (alone and with progesterone) and the Raynaud phenomenon. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Framingham Offspring Study. PARTICIPANTS: 497 postmenopausal women. MEASUREMENTS: Prevalence of the Raynaud phenomenon according to hormone use. Covariates measured included age, body mass index, smoking, alcohol consumption, and beta-blocker use. RESULTS: Forty-nine women were classified as having the Raynaud phenomenon (9.9%). The prevalence of this phenomenon was 8.4% among women who did not receive estrogen, 19.1% among women receiving estrogen alone, and 9.8% among women receiving estrogen plus progesterone. The adjusted odds ratio for the Raynaud phenomenon was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.2 to 5.3) for unopposed estrogen and 0.9 (CI, 0.3 to 2.6) for estrogen plus progesterone, with nonusers as the reference group. CONCLUSIONS: Unopposed estrogen therapy was associated with the Raynaud phenomenon in postmenopausal women. This association was not present in women who were receiving combined hormone therapy.[1]


  1. The association of estrogen replacement therapy and the Raynaud phenomenon in postmenopausal women. Fraenkel, L., Zhang, Y., Chaisson, C.E., Evans, S.R., Wilson, P.W., Felson, D.T. Ann. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
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