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MeSH Review

Raynaud Disease

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Disease relevance of Raynaud Disease


High impact information on Raynaud Disease


Chemical compound and disease context of Raynaud Disease


Biological context of Raynaud Disease

  • Flunarizine reinforces the action of atenolol in causing a decrease in vasoconstriction in patients with Raynaud's disease, as observed previously by us, in that it acts directly on the beta-presynaptic receptors or on the calcium slow channels connected to the beta-receptors [15].

Anatomical context of Raynaud Disease


Gene context of Raynaud Disease

  • This study tests the hypothesis that increased PTK activity mediates the increased vascular reactivity to agonists and cooling associated with primary Raynaud's disease (RD) [18].
  • Most patients with antibody solely to ribonuclease-insensitive ENA have SLE; these patients with SLE are typical of the general SLE population, except that they demonstrate an increased incidence of Raynaud phenomenon [19].
  • Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition is a novel therapeutic option in Raynaud disease [20].
  • Although SP levels did not differ significantly in patients with or without the Raynaud phenomenon, elevated activity may be present in the peripheral branches of SP neurons which could be responsible for the last (rubor) phase of the triphasic Raynaud's phenomenon [4].
  • 2. We have now investigated whether long infusion of CGRP can relieve symptoms of patients with Raynaud's disease using prostacyclin as a control [21].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Raynaud Disease


  1. Topical glyceryl trinitrate as adjunctive treatment in Raynaud's disease. Franks, A.G. Lancet (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Intravenous iloprost infusion in patients with Raynaud phenomenon secondary to systemic sclerosis. A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Wigley, F.M., Wise, R.A., Seibold, J.R., McCloskey, D.A., Kujala, G., Medsger, T.A., Steen, V.D., Varga, J., Jimenez, S., Mayes, M., Clements, P.J., Weiner, S.R., Porter, J., Ellman, M., Wise, C., Kaufman, L.D., Williams, J., Dole, W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Toxic oil syndrome. A long-term follow-up of a cohort of 332 patients. Alonso-Ruiz, A., Calabozo, M., Perez-Ruiz, F., Mancebo, L. Medicine (Baltimore) (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Elevated CSF levels of substance P and high incidence of Raynaud phenomenon in patients with fibromyalgia: new features for diagnosis. Vaerøy, H., Helle, R., Førre, O., Kåss, E., Terenius, L. Pain (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Arteriovenous reversal for limb salvage in unreconstructible upper extremity arterial occlusive disease. King, T.A., Marks, J., Berrettoni, B.A., Seitz, W.H. J. Vasc. Surg. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Venodilation in Raynaud's disease. Bedarida, G., Kim, D., Blaschke, T.F., Hoffman, B.B. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Serum endothelin-1 concentrations and cold provocation in primary Raynaud's phenomenon. Zamora, M.R., O'Brien, R.F., Rutherford, R.B., Weil, J.V. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  8. Nifedipine in the treatment of Raynaud's disease in childhood. Kaya, I.S., Senses, D.A., Dilmen, U. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Rapid effect of oral limaprost in Raynaud's disease in childhood. Shono, T., Ikeda, K. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  10. Cyclosporin and Raynaud phenomenon. Deray, G., Le Hoang, P., Achour, L., Hornych, A., Landault, C., Caraillon, A. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  11. Treatment of childhood Raynaud's disease by transdermal prostaglandin E2 analogue. Dunger, D.B., Dillon, M.J., Daman-Willems, C., Cooke, E.D., Bowcock, S.A. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  12. Continuous intravenous epoprostenol for pulmonary hypertension due to the scleroderma spectrum of disease. A randomized, controlled trial. Badesch, D.B., Tapson, V.F., McGoon, M.D., Brundage, B.H., Rubin, L.J., Wigley, F.M., Rich, S., Barst, R.J., Barrett, P.S., Kral, K.M., Jöbsis, M.M., Loyd, J.E., Murali, S., Frost, A., Girgis, R., Bourge, R.C., Ralph, D.D., Elliott, C.G., Hill, N.S., Langleben, D., Schilz, R.J., McLaughlin, V.V., Robbins, I.M., Groves, B.M., Shapiro, S., Medsger, T.A. Ann. Intern. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  13. The association of estrogen replacement therapy and the Raynaud phenomenon in postmenopausal women. Fraenkel, L., Zhang, Y., Chaisson, C.E., Evans, S.R., Wilson, P.W., Felson, D.T. Ann. Intern. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Survival in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. Results from a national prospective registry. D'Alonzo, G.E., Barst, R.J., Ayres, S.M., Bergofsky, E.H., Brundage, B.H., Detre, K.M., Fishman, A.P., Goldring, R.M., Groves, B.M., Kernis, J.T. Ann. Intern. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. The importance of presynaptic beta receptors in Raynaud's disease. Brotzu, G., Falchi, S., Mannu, B., Montisci, R., Petruzzo, P., Staico, R. J. Vasc. Surg. (1989) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased prostacyclin metabolites and decreased red cell deformability in patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynauds syndrome. Belch, J.J., McLaren, M., Anderson, J., Lowe, G.D., Sturrock, R.D., Capell, H.A., Forbes, C.D. Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and medicine. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. In search of mediators of skin vasodilation induced by transcutaneous nerve stimulation: IV. In vitro bioassay of the vasoinhibitory activity of sera from patients suffering from peripheral ischaemia. Kaada, B., Helle, K.B. Gen. Pharmacol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. Increased tyrosine phosphorylation mediates the cooling-induced contraction and increased vascular reactivity of Raynaud's disease. Furspan, P.B., Chatterjee, S., Freedman, R.R. Arthritis Rheum. (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. Antibodies to components of extractable nuclear antigen. Clinical characteristics of patients. Farber, S.J., Bole, G.G. Arch. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  20. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition is a novel therapeutic option in Raynaud disease. Caglayan, E., Huntgeburth, M., Karasch, T., Weihrauch, J., Hunzelmann, N., Krieg, T., Erdmann, E., Rosenkranz, S. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Prolonged effect of CGRP in Raynaud's patients: a double-blind randomised comparison with prostacyclin. Shawket, S., Dickerson, C., Hazleman, B., Brown, M.J. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Nicardipine for the treatment of Raynaud's phenomena: a double blind crossover trial of a new calcium entry blocker. Rupp, P.A., Mellinger, S., Kohler, J., Dorsey, J.K., Furst, D.E. J. Rheumatol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. The diagnosis and treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon. Porter, J.M., Snider, R.L., Bardana, E.J., Rösch, J., Eidemiller, L.R. Surgery (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Ketanserin: a novel cardiovascular drug. Symoens, J. Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis (1990) [Pubmed]
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