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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Differential effects of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonists on platelet microaggregate and macroaggregate formation and effect of anticoagulant on antagonist potency. Implications for assay methodology and comparison of different antagonists.

BACKGROUND: Citrated platelet-rich plasma ( PRP) turbidimetry is used for assessing pharmacodynamic effects of glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists in clinical trials. However, citrate can enhance the potency of at least eptifibatide (Integrilin), and turbidimetry is insensitive to microaggregate formation. We compared PRP turbidimetry, as a measure of macroaggregate formation, with single-platelet counting in both whole blood and PRP as a measure of microaggregate formation, using both citrate and hirudin anticoagulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three GP IIb/IIIa antagonists, eptifibatide, MK-0852, and GR144053, were compared in PRP (turbidimetry) and whole blood (platelet counting with an Ultra-Flo 100 Platelet Counter), with ADP and collagen used as agonists. Compared with hirudin, citrate enhanced the potency of eptifibatide by up to 4-fold in both PRP and whole blood (P<0.0005), modestly enhanced MK-0852 potency (P=0.001), and had no effect on GR144053. Potency measured in PRP was 2- to 3-fold greater compared with whole blood for MK-0852 and GR144053 but 3- to 4-fold greater for eptifibatide. Simultaneous turbidimetry and platelet counting performed in PRP indicated that this is because GP IIb/IIIa antagonists are more potent inhibitors of in vitro macroaggregation than microaggregation, this effect being greater for eptifibatide in hirudinized PRP compared with GR144053 (P=0.032). CONCLUSIONS: GP IIb/IIIa antagonist potency is variably enhanced by citrate. Macroaggregation is inhibited more effectively than microaggregation, most markedly in the case of eptifibatide in hirudinized blood. These observations have implications for the interpretation and comparison of pharmacodynamic assays and possibly for the risk/benefit ratio of different agents.[1]


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