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Gene Review

MXD4  -  MAX dimerization protein 4

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: BHLHC12, Class C basic helix-loop-helix protein 12, MAD4, MST149, MSTP149, ...
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High impact information on MXD4

  • Using a rat embryo fibroblast transformation assay, we show that both Mad3 and Mad4 inhibit c-Myc dependent cell transformation [1].
  • Mad3 and Mad4 interact with both Max and mSin3 and repress transcription from a promoter containing CACGTG binding sites [1].
  • The cytoplasmic localization of Mad4 was determined by a CRM1-dependent nuclear export signal located near the amino terminus [2].
  • Furthermore, our data derived from competition experiments suggested that the Mad3/Max and Mad4/Max complexes also possess comparable DNA binding affinities [3].
  • The isolates included an oncogenic variant (MAD-4), an antigenic variant (MAD-11), and two different isolates derived from the urine (MAD-7) and from the brain (MAD-8) of the same patient [4].

Biological context of MXD4

  • Using reporter gene assays in stably transfected MEL cells, we show that induction of Mad4 is mediated by a 49 nt core promoter region [5].
  • Mad4 was induced when cells exit the cell cycle and, together with mad1, during the late phase of differentiation [6].

Physical interactions of MXD4

  • Human liver specific transcriptional factor TCP10L binds to MAD4 [7].


  1. Mad3 and Mad4: novel Max-interacting transcriptional repressors that suppress c-myc dependent transformation and are expressed during neural and epidermal differentiation. Hurlin, P.J., Quéva, C., Koskinen, P.J., Steingrímsson, E., Ayer, D.E., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Eisenman, R.N. EMBO J. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Visualization of Myc/Max/Mad family dimers and the competition for dimerization in living cells. Grinberg, A.V., Hu, C.D., Kerppola, T.K. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification and characterization of specific DNA-binding complexes containing members of the Myc/Max/Mad network of transcriptional regulators. Sommer, A., Bousset, K., Kremmer, E., Austen, M., Lüscher, B. J. Biol. Chem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Differences in regulatory sequences of naturally occurring JC virus variants. Martin, J.D., King, D.M., Slauch, J.M., Frisque, R.J. J. Virol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Mad4 is regulated by a transcriptional repressor complex that contains Miz-1 and c-Myc. Kime, L., Wright, S.C. Biochem. J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Analysis of Myc/Max/Mad network members in adipogenesis: inhibition of the proliferative burst and differentiation by ectopically expressed Mad1. Pulverer, B., Sommer, A., McArthur, G.A., Eisenman, R.N., Lüscher, B. J. Cell. Physiol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Human liver specific transcriptional factor TCP10L binds to MAD4. Jiang, D.J., Yu, H.X., Hexige, S.Y., Guo, Z.K., Wang, X., Ma, L.J., Chen, Z., Zhao, S.Y., Yu, L. J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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