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tdh  -  L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase

Vibrio parahaemolyticus RIMD 2210633

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Disease relevance of tdh

  • A family of ISVs were widely distributed in Vibrio species, often regardless of the possession of the tdh genes, and one to several copies of the ISVs per organism were detected [1].

High impact information on tdh

  • At the amino acid level, TdhX was completely identical to TDH/I, although two base differences were found in the nucleotide sequences between tdhX and tdh/I [2].
  • The density of total V. parahaemolyticus bacteria was determined using a probe binding to the tlh (thermolabile hemolysin) gene, and the density of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus bacteria was determined by using a probe binding to the tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin) gene [3].
  • The pandemic serovars were positive by group-specific PCR (GS-PCR) and a PCR specific for open reading frame ORF8 (ORF8-PCR), which are molecular markers of the pandemic clone, and were positive for tdh but negative for trh [4].
  • While the virulence characteristics (tdh positive, trh negative) of the Spanish clinical isolates matched those of the O3:K6 clone from Asia and North America, they were clearly excluded from this clone by group-specific PCR, PFGE, and serotyping [5].
  • Among these, 48 strains belonging to four serotypes had the pandemic genotype and possessed the tdh gene [6].

Chemical compound and disease context of tdh

  • Detection of tdh and trh genes in a urea-hydrolysing environmental isolate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Andamans [7].

Biological context of tdh

  • The majority of strains (81%) had two copies of tdh on the chromosome, and no copies of trh or ure [8].

Other interactions of tdh

  • The tdh gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus which encodes the thermostable direct hemolysin has been found in some strains of other Vibrio species [1].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of tdh

  • The ribotypes of the strains of these serotypes were indistinguishable, except for a Japanese tdh- negative O3:K6 strain and a U.S. clinical O3:K6 isolate, which had slightly different profiles [9].
  • Furthermore, the prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was studied by PCR amplification of the toxR, tdh, and trh genes [3].
  • Southern hybridization with a tdh probe, after pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of Notl-digested genomic DNA of each strain revealed only single bands, suggesting that the two copies of the exist on single Notl fragments in each strain [8].


  1. Evidence for insertion sequence-mediated spread of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene among Vibrio species. Terai, A., Baba, K., Shirai, H., Yoshida, O., Takeda, Y., Nishibuchi, M. J. Bacteriol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Demonstration and characterization of simultaneous production of a thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH/I) and a TDH-related hemolysin (TRHx) by a clinically isolated Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain, TH3766. Xu, M., Iida, T., Yamamoto, K., Takarada, Y., Miwatani, T., Honda, T. Infect. Immun. (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Seasonal variation in abundance of total and pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus bacteria in oysters along the southwest coast of India. Deepanjali, A., Kumar, H.S., Karunasagar, I., Karunasagar, I. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Pandemic serovars (O3:K6 and O4:K68) of Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with diarrhea in Mozambique: spread of the pandemic into the African continent. Ansaruzzaman, M., Lucas, M., Deen, J.L., Bhuiyan, N.A., Wang, X.Y., Safa, A., Sultana, M., Chowdhury, A., Nair, G.B., Sack, D.A., von Seidlein, L., Puri, M.K., Ali, M., Chaignat, C.L., Clemens, J.D., Barreto, A. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Characterization of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates from clinical sources in Spain and comparison with Asian and North American pandemic isolates. Martinez-Urtaza, J., Lozano-Leon, A., DePaola, A., Ishibashi, M., Shimada, K., Nishibuchi, M., Liebana, E. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Prevalence of the pandemic genotype of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and significance of its distribution across different serotypes. Bhuiyan, N.A., Ansaruzzaman, M., Kamruzzaman, M., Alam, K., Chowdhury, N.R., Nishibuchi, M., Faruque, S.M., Sack, D.A., Takeda, Y., Nair, G.B. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  7. Detection of tdh and trh genes in a urea-hydrolysing environmental isolate of Vibrio parahaemolyticus from the Andamans. Ghosh, A.R., Sehgal, S.C. Journal of diarrhoeal diseases research. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Close proximity of the tdh, trh and ure genes on the chromosome of Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Iida, T., Park, K.S., Suthienkul, O., Kozawa, J., Yamaichi, Y., Yamamoto, K., Honda, T. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Molecular evidence of clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. Chowdhury, N.R., Chakraborty, S., Ramamurthy, T., Nishibuchi, M., Yamasaki, S., Takeda, Y., Nair, G.B. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
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