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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

North America

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Disease relevance of North America


Psychiatry related information on North America


High impact information on North America

  • A nonsense mutation at codon 677 of this gene is present in approximately 3% of cases of dominant RP in North America. We also detected two deletion mutations that cause frameshifts and introduce premature termination codons in three other families with dominant RP [11].
  • The two species of Atlantic sea sturgeon on either shore of the North Atlantic, Acipenser sturio in Europe and A. oxyrinchus in North America, probably diverged with the closure of the Tethys Sea and the onset of the North Atlantic Gyre 15-20 million years ago, and contact between them was then presumably precluded by geographic distance [12].
  • Organic nutrient enrichments shifted enantioselectivity for methyl dichlorprop ((RS)-methyl 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid) strongly towards preferentially removing the non-herbicidal enantiomer in soils from Brazil and North America, potentially increasing phytotoxicity of its residues relative to that of the racemate [13].
  • In North America, 4-5% of the general population are heterozygous for a CFTR mutation [14].
  • Here we analyse the class I alleles of the Waorani of South America and the Zuni of North America. Four of the Waorani HLA-B alleles were new functional variants which could be accounted for by intralocus recombination [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of North America


Biological context of North America

  • This study, combining our field and controlled environment manipulation studies in Europe and North America, reveals an additional control: an emergent pattern of increasing suppression of methane (CH(4)) emission from peatlands with increasing sulfate (SO(4)(2-)-S) deposition, within the range of global acid deposition [21].
  • The disease, which belongs to the Finnish disease heritage, exists predominantly in Finland, but many cases have been observed elsewhere in Europe and North America. The nephrin gene consists of 29 exons spanning 26 kb in the chromosomal region 19q13 [22].
  • Black spruce (Picea mariana [B.S.P.] Mill.) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) are two conifer species known to hybridize naturally in northeastern North America. We hypothesized that there is a progenitor-derivative relationship between these two taxa and conducted a genetic investigation by using sequence-tagged-site markers of expressed genes [23].
  • No unique mutations were found in Caucasian, African American, Hispanic, Chinese, or Japanese SLE patients living in North America. CONCLUSION: The uncommon and equal occurrence of novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms in both SLE patients and normal subjects makes it improbable that they play important roles in genetic susceptibility to SLE [24].
  • The virus is enzootic throughout western North America and has spread to Asia and Europe. A full-length cDNA of the IHNV antigenome (pIHNV-Pst) was assembled from subgenomic overlapping cDNA fragments and cloned in a transcription plasmid between the T7 RNA polymerase promoter and the autocatalytic hepatitis delta virus ribozyme [25].

Anatomical context of North America


Associations of North America with chemical compounds

  • A decade ago, aspartic acid racemization ages were determined for some skeletal remains found in California, near La Jolla, Del Mar and Sunnyvale, suggesting that people were present in North America during the Upper Pleistocene [31].
  • Additional cases were collected from these and other centers across North America to further describe the clinical presentation and course of TTP due to ticlopidine therapy following stenting [32].
  • BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma total homocysteine level has been associated with cardiovascular disease in many studies, mostly in Europe and North America. Data on persons from other areas and on associations with overall mortality are sparse [33].
  • Erroneous primaquine dose in "Tropical Diseases in North America" (Disease-a-Month) [34].
  • Based on the current French price ratio of low-molecular-weight heparin to standard heparin, the use of low-molecular-weight heparin in North America would result in overall savings in cost; however, the relative cost-effectiveness is critically dependent on the price ratio between the two drugs [35].

Gene context of North America

  • Replication of putative candidate-gene associations with rheumatoid arthritis in >4,000 samples from North America and Sweden: association of susceptibility with PTPN22, CTLA4, and PADI4 [36].
  • To better understand the polymorphic nature of HLA-C molecules, 1823 samples from the National Marrow Donor Program research repository in North America have been typed by DNA sequencing and interpreted in terms of HLA-C diversification [37].
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: ER status, grade, and histological tumor type were evaluated in 1131 women with invasive breast cancer, ascertained at 10 centers in North America. There were 208 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 88 BRCA2 carriers, and 804 women without a known mutation [38].
  • EXT1 is the most frequent single cause of EXT in the Caucasian population in Europe and North America. It accounts for about 40% of cases of EXT [39].
  • Our results indicate that USH2A mutations are found in about 7% of all cases of RP in North America, a frequency similar to the RPGR gene (8%) and the rhodopsin gene (10%) [40].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of North America


  1. Disordered eating behavior and microvascular complications in young women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Rydall, A.C., Rodin, G.M., Olmsted, M.P., Devenyi, R.G., Daneman, D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. The emergence of a highly transmissible lineage of cbl+ Pseudomonas (Burkholderia) cepacia causing CF centre epidemics in North America and Britain. Sun, L., Jiang, R.Z., Steinbach, S., Holmes, A., Campanelli, C., Forstner, J., Sajjan, U., Tan, Y., Riley, M., Goldstein, R. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Factors correlated with progression-free survival after high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for metastatic breast cancer. Rowlings, P.A., Williams, S.F., Antman, K.H., Fields, K.K., Fay, J.W., Reed, E., Pelz, C.J., Klein, J.P., Sobocinski, K.A., Kennedy, M.J., Freytes, C.O., McCarthy, P.L., Herzig, R.H., Stadtmauer, E.A., Lazarus, H.M., Pecora, A.L., Bitran, J.D., Wolff, S.N., Gale, R.P., Armitage, J.O., Vaughan, W.P., Spitzer, G., Horowitz, M.M. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus mutations in North America and the Hopewell hypothesis. Bichet, D.G., Arthus, M.F., Lonergan, M., Hendy, G.N., Paradis, A.J., Fujiwara, T.M., Morgan, K., Gregory, M.C., Rosenthal, W., Didwania, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  5. Norfloxacin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae in North America. Yeung, K.H., Dillon, J.R. Lancet (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. The RSNA-AUR-ARRS introduction to research program for 2nd year radiology residents: effect on career choice and early academic performance. Radiological Society of North America. Association of University Radiologists. American Roentgen Ray Society. Hillman, B.J., Nash, K.D., Witzke, D.B., Fajardo, L.L., Davis, D. Radiology. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Fathers have lower salivary testosterone levels than unmarried men and married non-fathers in Beijing, China. Gray, P.B., Yang, C.F., Pope, H.G. Proc. Biol. Sci. (2006) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of stimulant medications on the EEG of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clarke, A.R., Barry, R.J., Bond, D., McCarthy, R., Selikowitz, M. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (2002) [Pubmed]
  9. Distribution of FMR1 and FMR2 alleles in Javanese individuals with developmental disability and confirmation of a specific AGG-interruption pattern in Asian populations. Faradz, S.M., Leggo, J., Murray, A., Lam-Po-Tang, P.R., Buckley, M.F., Holden, J.J. Ann. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. The early cellular pathology of Huntington's disease. Li, X.J. Mol. Neurobiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Mutations in a gene encoding a new oxygen-regulated photoreceptor protein cause dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Pierce, E.A., Quinn, T., Meehan, T., McGee, T.L., Berson, E.L., Dryja, T.P. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  12. When the American sea sturgeon swam east. Ludwig, A., Debus, L., Lieckfeldt, D., Wirgin, I., Benecke, N., Jenneckens, I., Williot, P., Waldman, J.R., Pitra, C. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Influence of environmental changes on degradation of chiral pollutants in soils. Lewis, D.L., Garrison, A.W., Wommack, K.E., Whittemore, A., Steudler, P., Melillo, J. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Protection against bronchial asthma by CFTR delta F508 mutation: a heterozygote advantage in cystic fibrosis. Schroeder, S.A., Gaughan, D.M., Swift, M. Nat. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. New recombinant HLA-B alleles in a tribe of South American Amerindians indicate rapid evolution of MHC class I loci. Watkins, D.I., McAdam, S.N., Liu, X., Strang, C.R., Milford, E.L., Levine, C.G., Garber, T.L., Dogon, A.L., Lord, C.I., Ghim, S.H. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Allosteric modulation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptor 4: a potential approach to Parkinson's disease treatment. Marino, M.J., Williams, D.L., O'Brien, J.A., Valenti, O., McDonald, T.P., Clements, M.K., Wang, R., DiLella, A.G., Hess, J.F., Kinney, G.G., Conn, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  17. A randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy of 12-month famciclovir treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B e antigen-positive hepatitis B. de Man, R.A., Marcellin, P., Habal, F., Desmond, P., Wright, T., Rose, T., Jurewicz, R., Young, C. Hepatology (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. Amsacrine-associated cardiotoxicity: an analysis of 82 cases. Weiss, R.B., Grillo-López, A.J., Marsoni, S., Posada, J.G., Hess, F., Ross, B.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  19. Human IgG monoclonal antibodies that modulate the binding of specific IgE to birch pollen Bet v 1. Visco, V., Dolecek, C., Denépoux, S., Le Mao, J., Guret, C., Rousset, F., Guinnepain, M.T., Kraft, D., Valenta, R., Weyer, A., Banchereau, J., Labecque, S. J. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Disease susceptibility to ST11 complex meningococci bearing serogroup C or W135 polysaccharide capsules, North America. Pollard, A.J., Ochnio, J., Ho, M., Callaghan, M., Bigham, M., Dobsong, S. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Sulfur pollution suppression of the wetland methane source in the 20th and 21st centuries. Gauci, V., Matthews, E., Dise, N., Walter, B., Koch, D., Granberg, G., Vile, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Structure of the gene for congenital nephrotic syndrome of the finnish type (NPHS1) and characterization of mutations. Lenkkeri, U., Männikkö, M., McCready, P., Lamerdin, J., Gribouval, O., Niaudet, P.M., Antignac C, K., Kashtan, C.E., Homberg, C., Olsen, A., Kestilä, M., Tryggvason, K. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence from sequence-tagged-site markers of a recent progenitor-derivative species pair in conifers. Perron, M., Perry, D.J., Andalo, C., Bousquet, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of T cell receptor zeta chain in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Wu, J., Edberg, J.C., Gibson, A.W., Tsao, B., Kimberly, R.P. Arthritis Rheum. (1999) [Pubmed]
  25. Recovery of NV knockout infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus expressing foreign genes. Biacchesi, S., Thoulouze, M.I., Béarzotti, M., Yu, Y.X., Brémont, M. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Natal homing in a marine fish metapopulation. Thorrold, S.R., Latkoczy, C., Swart, P.K., Jones, C.M. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. The effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "Ecstasy") on monoaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system. White, S.R., Obradovic, T., Imel, K.M., Wheaton, M.J. Prog. Neurobiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Association analysis of the R620W polymorphism of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 in systemic lupus erythematosus families: increased T allele frequency in systemic lupus erythematosus patients with autoimmune thyroid disease. Wu, H., Cantor, R.M., Graham, D.S., Lingren, C.M., Farwell, L., Jager, P.L., Bottini, N., Grossman, J.M., Wallace, D.J., Hahn, B.H., Julkunen, H., Hebert, L.A., Rovin, B.H., Birmingham, D.J., Rioux, J.D., Yu, C.Y., Kere, J., Vyse, T.J., Tsao, B.P. Arthritis Rheum. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Health effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals on wildlife, with special reference to the European situation. Vos, J.G., Dybing, E., Greim, H.A., Ladefoged, O., Lambré, C., Tarazona, J.V., Brandt, I., Vethaak, A.D. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. Fatty acid formula supplementation and neuromotor development in rhesus monkey neonates. Champoux, M., Hibbeln, J.R., Shannon, C., Majchrzak, S., Suomi, S.J., Salem, N., Higley, J.D. Pediatr. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages of amino acid extracts from Californian palaeoindian skeletons. Bada, J.L., Gillespie, R., Gowlett, J.A., Hedges, R.E. Nature (1984) [Pubmed]
  32. Incidence and clinical course of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura due to ticlopidine following coronary stenting. EPISTENT Investigators. Evaluation of Platelet IIb/IIIa Inhibitor for Stenting. Steinhubl, S.R., Tan, W.A., Foody, J.M., Topol, E.J. JAMA (1999) [Pubmed]
  33. Nonfasting plasma total homocysteine level and mortality in middle-aged and elderly men and women in Jerusalem. Kark, J.D., Selhub, J., Adler, B., Gofin, J., Abramson, J.H., Friedman, G., Rosenberg, I.H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Erroneous primaquine dose in "Tropical Diseases in North America" (Disease-a-Month). Cotsonas, N.J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  35. Efficacy and cost of low-molecular-weight heparin compared with standard heparin for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis after total hip arthroplasty. Anderson, D.R., O'Brien, B.J., Levine, M.N., Roberts, R., Wells, P.S., Hirsh, J. Ann. Intern. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Replication of putative candidate-gene associations with rheumatoid arthritis in >4,000 samples from North America and Sweden: association of susceptibility with PTPN22, CTLA4, and PADI4. Plenge, R.M., Padyukov, L., Remmers, E.F., Purcell, S., Lee, A.T., Karlson, E.W., Wolfe, F., Kastner, D.L., Alfredsson, L., Altshuler, D., Gregersen, P.K., Klareskog, L., Rioux, J.D. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Sequence-based typing provides a new look at HLA-C diversity. Turner, S., Ellexson, M.E., Hickman, H.D., Sidebottom, D.A., Fernández-Viña, M., Confer, D.L., Hildebrand, W.H. J. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  38. Estrogen receptor status in BRCA1- and BRCA2-related breast cancer: the influence of age, grade, and histological type. Foulkes, W.D., Metcalfe, K., Sun, P., Hanna, W.M., Lynch, H.T., Ghadirian, P., Tung, N., Olopade, O.I., Weber, B.L., McLennan, J., Olivotto, I.A., Bégin, L.R., Narod, S.A. Clin. Cancer Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Mutation analysis of hereditary multiple exostoses in the Chinese. Xu, L., Xia, J., Jiang, H., Zhou, J., Li, H., Wang, D., Pan, Q., Long, Z., Fan, C., Deng, H.X. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  40. Comprehensive screening of the USH2A gene in Usher syndrome type II and non-syndromic recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Seyedahmadi, B.J., Rivolta, C., Keene, J.A., Berson, E.L., Dryja, T.P. Exp. Eye Res. (2004) [Pubmed]
  41. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of emtricitabine in chronic hepatitis B. Lim, S.G., Ng, T.M., Kung, N., Krastev, Z., Volfova, M., Husa, P., Lee, S.S., Chan, S., Shiffman, M.L., Washington, M.K., Rigney, A., Anderson, J., Mondou, E., Snow, A., Sorbel, J., Guan, R., Rousseau, F. Arch. Intern. Med. (2006) [Pubmed]
  42. Thallium-201 myocardial imaging during pharmacologic coronary vasodilation: comparison of oral and intravenous administration of dipyridamole. Taillefer, R., Lette, J., Phaneuf, D.C., Léveillé, J., Lemire, F., Essiambre, R. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  43. The treatment of antiretroviral-naive subjects with the 3TC/zidovudine combination: a review of North American (NUCA 3001) and European (NUCB 3001) trials. Eron, J.J. AIDS (1996) [Pubmed]
  44. Predictors of good outcome after intravenous tPA for acute ischemic stroke. Demchuk, A.M., Tanne, D., Hill, M.D., Kasner, S.E., Hanson, S., Grond, M., Levine, S.R. Neurology (2001) [Pubmed]
  45. Neisseria gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing of strains from North America, Hawaii, and the Philippines. Xia, M., Roberts, M.C., Whittington, W.L., Holmes, K.K., Knapp, J.S., Dillon, J.A., Wi, T. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1996) [Pubmed]
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