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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Ribotyping


High impact information on Ribotyping

  • The ribotypes of the strains of these serotypes were indistinguishable, except for a Japanese tdh- negative O3:K6 strain and a U.S. clinical O3:K6 isolate, which had slightly different profiles [6].
  • We describe six patients with CF in whom the same strain of B. gladioli, on the basis of ribotyping and biochemical characteristics, was grown in their sputum [7].
  • No particular PCR ribotype was associated with clindamycin or fusidic acid resistance [8].
  • On the basis of clustering information and preliminary genetic characterization, it appears that ribotyping is a useful tool in identifying potential CA-MRSA isolates and 76 MRSA isolates from patients enrolled in the tigecycline phase 3 trials have genetic markers typically associated with CA-MRSA [9].
  • Two PstI ribotypes were found in MDR/SGI1 isolates, RP1 (n = 38) and RP6 (n = 1) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Ribotyping


Biological context of Ribotyping

  • The methods used included: large restriction fragment pattern analysis of restriction enzyme MluI-digested genomic DNA, plasmid profiling, protein profiling, ribotyping using 5S, 16S, and 23S rDNA probes, and polymerase chain reaction amplification of the rrf (5S)-rrl (23S) intergenic spacer region [16].
  • In contrast to strains isolated before 1991, 94% of 104 strains isolated after 1990 showed an identical ribotype R1, were resistant to sulfamethoxazole and streptomycin, and showed a different CT genotype [17].
  • Analysis of rRNA gene restriction patterns (ribotype) showed that the environmental isolates shared ribotypes with a collection of clinical isolates, but in contrast to the clinical isolates, 10 of the 11 environmental isolates were either negative or carried deletions in the plasmid-encoded invasion-associated genes ipaB, ipaC, and ipaD [18].
  • Distinct ribotypes such as G2, G3, G4, G5, and M2 could represent endemic disease [19].
  • A total of 502 Listeria monocytogenes isolates from food and 492 from humans were subtyped by EcoRI ribotyping and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the virulence gene hly [20].

Anatomical context of Ribotyping

  • Strains were characterized by conventional methods (biochemical and serologic identification, susceptibility to antimicrobial agents), polymerase chain reaction for genes encoding cholera toxin (CtxA), zonula occludens toxin (Zot), and accessory cholera enterotoxin (Ace), and by ribotyping [21].
  • Campylobacter isolates originating from one set of breeder hens and the feces from their respective progeny demonstrated identical ribotype patterns as well as identical flaA SVR DNA sequences, thereby suggesting that these isolates were clonal in origin [22].

Associations of Ribotyping with chemical compounds

  • Five of the patients had isolates with the same PFGE or ribotyping patterns in 1997 as in 1994, and ciprofloxacin had a two- to fourfold higher MIC for the isolates collected in 1997 than those from 1994 [2].
  • One exception was a multiresistant serotype 19A isolate that was highly related to the clonal group by PBP pattern and MLEE analysis and that had a ribotype similar to those of the other erythromycin-resistant serotype 23F isolates [23].
  • Chlorhexidine susceptibilities of mutans streptococcal serotypes and ribotypes [24].
  • The PBP patterns, MLEE profiles, and ribotypes of the multiresistant serotype 23F isolates were easily distinguished from those of six multiresistant isolates of other serotypes; three other penicillin-resistant, chloramphenicol-susceptible, serotype 23F isolates; and two penicillin-susceptible isolates [23].
  • No correlation between methicillin resistance and certain ribotypes among the S. epidermidis strains was observed [25].

Gene context of Ribotyping

  • Searches of the Pathogen Tracker database, which contains subtype and source information for more than 5,000 L. monocytogenes isolates, revealed that the six ribotypes shown to contain isolates with inlA PMSCs were overall more commonly isolated from foods than from human listeriosis cases [26].
  • The following characteristics were investigated: Smal patterns, hybridization patterns with pBA2 (ribotypes), slime production, adhesion to matrix proteins (fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen) and the staphylococcal adhesion genes (fnbA, clfA, cna, atlE, ica, fbe) [27].
  • This combination of typing methods differentiated 39 distinctive strains, each reflecting a unique combination of ribotypes, hly and actA alleles [28].
  • An investigation of dangerous bacterial pathogens was conducted to determine the usefulness of automated rRNA operon ribotyping (RiboPrinter system) to identify species [29].
  • Comparison of flaA typing with other key subtyping methods for C. jejuni showed it to be less discriminatory than pulsed field gel electrophoretic (PFGE) profiling, but more so than ribotyping [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Ribotyping


  1. Use of restriction endonuclease analysis and ribotyping to study epidemiology of Pasteurella multocida in closed swine herds. Zhao, G., Pijoan, C., Murtaugh, M.P., Molitor, T.W. Infect. Immun. (1992) [Pubmed]
  2. Molecular mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis patients. Jalal, S., Ciofu, O., Hoiby, N., Gotoh, N., Wretlind, B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. Quantitative antibiogram typing using inhibition zone diameters compared with ribotyping for epidemiological typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Blanc, D.S., Lugeon, C., Wenger, A., Siegrist, H.H., Francioli, P. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae O139 in China: polymorphism of ribotypes and CTX elements. Qu, M., Xu, J., Ding, Y., Wang, R., Liu, P., Kan, B., Qi, G., Liu, Y., Gao, S. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Epidemic spread of subgroup III of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A to South Africa in 1996. McGee, L., Koornhof, H.J., Caugant, D.A. Clin. Infect. Dis. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular evidence of clonal Vibrio parahaemolyticus pandemic strains. Chowdhury, N.R., Chakraborty, S., Ramamurthy, T., Nishibuchi, M., Yamasaki, S., Takeda, Y., Nair, G.B. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Nosocomial acquisition of Burkholderia gladioli in patients with cystic fibrosis. Wilsher, M.L., Kolbe, J., Morris, A.J., Welch, D.F. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Clostridium difficile and Its Relation to PCR Ribotypes in a Swedish University Hospital. Aspevall, O., Lundberg, A., Burman, L.G., Akerlund, T., Svenungsson, B. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Use of ribotyping to retrospectively identify methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from phase 3 clinical trials for tigecycline that are genotypically related to community-associated isolates. McAleese, F., Murphy, E., Babinchak, T., Singh, G., Said-Salim, B., Kreiswirth, B., Dunman, P., O'Connell, J., Projan, S.J., Bradford, P.A. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. Multiple-antibiotic resistance in Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi B isolates collected in France between 2000 and 2003 is due mainly to strains harboring Salmonella genomic islands 1, 1-B, and 1-C. Weill, F.X., Fabre, L., Grandry, B., Grimont, P.A., Casin, I. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Genotypic characterization of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Acinetobacter spp. isolated in Latin America. Gales, A.C., Pfaller, M.A., Sader, H.S., Hollis, R.J., Jones, R.N. Microb. Drug Resist. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Utility of ribotyping, restriction endonuclease analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to discriminate between isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae of serovar IA-2 which require arginine, hypoxanthine or uracil for growth. Li, H., Dillon, J.A. J. Med. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. Identification method based on PCR combined with automated ribotyping for tracking probiotic Lactobacillus strains colonizing the human gut and vagina. Massi, M., Vitali, B., Federici, F., Matteuzzi, D., Brigidi, P. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Genetic heterogeneity and functional properties of intestinal bifidobacteria. Mättö, J., Malinen, E., Suihko, M.L., Alander, M., Palva, A., Saarela, M. J. Appl. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Comparative molecular characterization of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis of different origin. Costa, L.R., Spier, S.J., Hirsh, D.C. Vet. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Molecular subtyping of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates from five patients with solitary lymphocytoma. Picken, R.N., Strle, F., Ruzic-Sabljic, E., Maraspin, V., Lotric-Furlan, S., Cimperman, J., Cheng, Y., Picken, M.M. J. Invest. Dermatol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  17. Cholera in Vietnam: changes in genotypes and emergence of class I integrons containing aminoglycoside resistance gene cassettes in vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated from 1979 to 1996. Dalsgaard, A., Forslund, A., Tam, N.V., Vinh, D.X., Cam, P.D. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Isolation of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 and S. flexneri strains from surface waters in Bangladesh: comparative molecular analysis of environmental Shigella isolates versus clinical strains. Faruque, S.M., Khan, R., Kamruzzaman, M., Yamasaki, S., Ahmad, Q.S., Azim, T., Nair, G.B., Takeda, Y., Sack, D.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  19. Molecular epidemiology of Corynebacterium diphtheriae from northwestern Russia and surrounding countries studied by using ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. De Zoysa, A., Efstratiou, A., George, R.C., Jahkola, M., Vuopio-Varkila, J., Deshevoi, S., Tseneva, G., Rikushin, Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. Listeria monocytogenes isolates from foods and humans form distinct but overlapping populations. Gray, M.J., Zadoks, R.N., Fortes, E.D., Dogan, B., Cai, S., Chen, Y., Scott, V.N., Gombas, D.E., Boor, K.J., Wiedmann, M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Vibrio cholerae isolates from a recent cholera outbreak in Senegal: comparison with isolates from Guinea-Bissau. Aidara, A., Koblavi, S., Boye, C.S., Raphenon, G., Gassama, A., Grimont, F., Grimont, P.A. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. Identification of a new source of Campylobacter contamination in poultry: transmission from breeder hens to broiler chickens. Cox, N.A., Stern, N.J., Hiett, K.L., Berrang, M.E. Avian Dis. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Analysis of multiply antimicrobial-resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from the United States. McDougal, L.K., Facklam, R., Reeves, M., Hunter, S., Swenson, J.M., Hill, B.C., Tenover, F.C. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1992) [Pubmed]
  24. Chlorhexidine susceptibilities of mutans streptococcal serotypes and ribotypes. Grönroos, L., Mättö, J., Saarela, M., Luoma, A.R., Luoma, H., Jousimies-Somer, H., Pyhälä, L., Asikainen, S., Alaluusua, S. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Ribotyping of coagulase-negative staphylococci with special emphasis on intraspecific typing of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Izard, N.C., Hächler, H., Grehn, M., Kayser, F.H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  26. Select Listeria monocytogenes subtypes commonly found in foods carry distinct nonsense mutations in inlA, leading to expression of truncated and secreted internalin A, and are associated with a reduced invasion phenotype for human intestinal epithelial cells. Nightingale, K.K., Windham, K., Martin, K.E., Yeung, M., Wiedmann, M. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Tracking adhesion factors in Staphylococcus caprae strains responsible for human bone infections following implantation of orthopaedic material. Allignet, J., Galdbart, J.O., Morvan, A., Dyke, K.G., Vaudaux, P., Aubert, S., Desplaces, N., el Solh, N. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. Comparative genetic characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from human and animal listeriosis cases. Jeffers, G.T., Bruce, J.L., McDonough, P.L., Scarlett, J., Boor, K.J., Wiedmann, M. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Identifying and subtyping species of dangerous pathogens by automated ribotyping. Grif, K., Dierich, M.P., Much, P., Hofer, E., Allerberger, F. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Flagellin gene profiling of Campylobacter jejuni heat-stable serotype 1 and 4 complex. Santesteban, E., Gibson, J., Owen, R.J. Res. Microbiol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. DNA fingerprinting by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is more effective than ribotyping in distinguishing among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Prevost, G., Jaulhac, B., Piemont, Y. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Spread of Staphylococcus aureus resistant to penicillin and tetracycline within and between dairy herds. Waage, S., Bjorland, J., Caugant, D.A., Oppegaard, H., Tollersrud, T., Mørk, T., Aarestrup, F.M. Epidemiol. Infect. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. The use of plasmid profiles and nucleic acid probes in epidemiologic investigations of foodborne, diarrheal diseases. Wachsmuth, I.K., Kiehlbauch, J.A., Bopp, C.A., Cameron, D.N., Strockbine, N.A., Wells, J.G., Blake, P.A. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  34. Consensus sequence on the genes encoding the major outer surface proteins (OspA and OspB) of Borrelia garinii isolate. Wang, J., Masuzawa, T., Komikado, T., Yanagihara, Y. Microbiol. Immunol. (1997) [Pubmed]
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