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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Serotyping


High impact information on Serotyping

  • Pneumococcal penicillin G sodium minimal inhibitory concentrations and serotyping were performed [6].
  • Serotyping of more than half the isolates identified 96% of these isolates to be present in the currently available pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine [7].
  • All participants were of African descent and were enrolled in epidemiologic studies conducted at the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica. We used standard microlymphocytotoxicity assays for HLA antigen serotyping and polymerase chain reaction-based methods to examine HLA class II DRB1 and DQB1 alleles [8].
  • The outbreak was caused by a single strain of C jejuni, as demonstrated by biotyping (biotype I), serotyping (LAU 7/PEN 18 on heat-stable antigens, a new serotype on heat-labile antigens), and the identical susceptibility pattern and outer-membrane-protein profile on sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [9].
  • Serotyping showed that most recurrences were reinfections with ampicillin-resistant strains [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Serotyping


Biological context of Serotyping


Anatomical context of Serotyping


Associations of Serotyping with chemical compounds

  • Recent invasive GAS isolates were compared with pre-1994 invasive isolates and temporally related pharyngeal isolates by M protein serotyping, pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and polymerase chain reaction amplification of the streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A gene [26].
  • We developed a screening plate by utilizing sorbitol fermentation as a biochemical marker to identify organisms for serotyping [27].
  • Latex assay for serotyping of group B Streptococcus isolates [28].
  • The serotyping and antibiotic susceptibility patterns suggested a few endemic strains of serotypes O13, O2/3, O12/14, and nontypable strains [29].
  • Of the 11 S. marcescens isolates submitted to the Centers for Disease Control for serotyping (6 from aqueous benzalkonium chloride sponge pots, 5 from intravenous catheters), 8 were identified as serotype O10:H11 [30].

Gene context of Serotyping

  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed class I (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) serotyping on patients enrolled onto Southwest Oncology Group Trial 9035, a randomized, observation-controlled, phase III trial of adjuvant Melacine [31].
  • A comparison of two types of data for DQA1 and DRB1 showed that serotyping led to generally lower estimates of S [32].
  • We used the resources of Mayo Clinic's tissue typing laboratory for serotyping class I HLA-A and HLA-B alleles via microlymphocytotoxicity assays [33].
  • It was typed serologically by excreted factor serotyping and enzymologically by thick starch electrophoresis of four of its enzymes: GPI, G6PD, 6PGD and PGM [34].
  • Tissue typing for HLA-A and B molecules was performed using serotyping methodology based on lymphocytotoxicity reaction [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Serotyping

  • Characterization of a multidrug-resistant clone of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B in Alaska by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PspA serotyping [36].
  • When plaque-purified preparations of these tissue culture-adapted viruses were analyzed in the serotyping ELISA, the C60 and C86 preparations reacted only as serotype 1 viruses, indicating that the original fecal samples, which showed multiple VP7 reactivities, were heterogeneous and apparently contained two types of viruses [37].
  • On the one hand, virus culture was done to isolate the enteroviruses, and serotyping was done by a coxsackievirus A24 variant-specific PCR [38].
  • Sequence analysis of the C. jejuni flaA SVR may be a useful tool for epidemiologic investigations and could complement or replace serotyping and other subtyping methods [39].
  • Following an outbreak of meningococcal disease in three schoolchildren in a small community in northern Norway, DNA fingerprinting, serotyping with monoclonal antibodies, serogrouping, and sulfonamide sensitivity testing were applied for characterization and tracing of the causative agent [40].


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  3. Extent of antigenic diversity in the V3 region of the surface glycoprotein, gp120, of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group M and consequences for serotyping. Plantier, J.C., Le Pogam, S., Poisson, F., Buzelay, L., Lejeune, B., Barin, F. J. Virol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Evidence of reinfection with multiple strains of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Macaca nemestrina housed under hyperendemic conditions. Russell, R.G., Sarmiento, J.I., Fox, J., Panigrahi, P. Infect. Immun. (1990) [Pubmed]
  5. Lipopolysaccharide serotyping of Neisseria meningitidis by hemagglutination inhibition. Mandrell, R.E., Zollinger, W.D. Infect. Immun. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Low dosage and long treatment duration of beta-lactam: risk factors for carriage of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Guillemot, D., Carbon, C., Balkau, B., Geslin, P., Lecoeur, H., Vauzelle-Kervroëdan, F., Bouvenot, G., Eschwége, E. JAMA (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Invasive pneumococcal disease in an Alaska native population, 1980 through 1986. Davidson, M., Schraer, C.D., Parkinson, A.J., Campbell, J.F., Facklam, R.R., Wainwright, R.B., Lanier, A.P., Heyward, W.L. JAMA (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Human leukocyte antigen class II alleles associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I infection and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in a Black population. Manns, A., Hanchard, B., Morgan, O.S., Wilks, R., Cranston, B., Nam, J.M., Blank, M., Kuwayama, M., Yashiki, S., Fujiyoshi, T., Blattner, W., Sonoda, S. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Nosocomial outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni meningitis in newborn infants. Goossens, H., Henocque, G., Kremp, L., Rocque, J., Boury, R., Alanio, G., Vlaes, L., Hemelhof, W., Van den Borre, C., Macart, M. Lancet (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Acute renal infection in women: treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or ampicillin for two or six weeks. A randomized trial. Stamm, W.E., McKevitt, M., Counts, G.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Geographic distribution, frequency, and specimen source of Mycobacterium avium complex serotypes isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Yakrus, M.A., Good, R.C. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Analysis of Campylobacter jejuni antigens with monoclonal antibodies. Kosunen, T.U., Bång, B.E., Hurme, M. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. The line blot: an immunoassay for monoclonal and other antibodies. Its application to the serotyping of gram-negative bacteria. Raoult, D., Dasch, G.A. J. Immunol. Methods (1989) [Pubmed]
  14. DNA hybridization and latex agglutination for detection of heat-labile- and shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli in meat. Notermans, S., Wernars, K., Soentoro, P.S., Dufrenne, J., Jansen, W. Int. J. Food Microbiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  15. Analysis of non-porcine isolates of Actinobacillus suis. Jeannotte, M.E., Slavić, D., Frey, J., Kuhnert, P., MacInnes, J.I. Vet. Microbiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Novel genetic markers of rheumatoid arthritis in Chilean patients, by DR serotyping and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. González, A., Nicovani, S., Massardo, L., Bull, P., Rodríguez, L., Jacobelli, S. Arthritis Rheum. (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Immunoblots and plasmid fingerprints compared with serotyping and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for typing Clostridium difficile. Mulligan, M.E., Peterson, L.R., Kwok, R.Y., Clabots, C.R., Gerding, D.N. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  18. Hepatitis C virus heteroduplex tracking assay for genotype determination reveals diverging genotype 2 isolates in Italian hemodialysis patients. Calvo, P.L., Kansopon, J., Sra, K., Quan, S., DiNello, R., Guaschino, R., Calabrese, G., Danielle, F., Brunetto, M.R., Bonino, F., Massaro, A.L., Polito, A., Houghton, M., Weiner, A.J. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Detection and serotyping of rotaviruses in stool specimens by using reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction amplification. Ushijima, H., Koike, H., Mukoyama, A., Hasegawa, A., Nishimura, S., Gentsch, J. J. Med. Virol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Dengue NS1-specific antibody responses: isotype distribution and serotyping in patients with Dengue fever and Dengue hemorrhagic fever. Shu, P.Y., Chen, L.K., Chang, S.F., Yueh, Y.Y., Chow, L., Chien, L.J., Chin, C., Lin, T.H., Huang, J.H. J. Med. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. HLA in kinship determinations among Haitian immigrants. Wenk, R.E., Houtz, T.D., Brooks, M.A., Nicholson, W., Bagalio, D. Clin. Genet. (1983) [Pubmed]
  22. An immunogenetic analysis of the T-cell recognition of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2: identification of high- and low-responder HLA-DQ alleles and localization of T-cell epitopes. O'Brien, R.M., Thomas, W.R., Nicholson, I., Lamb, J.R., Tait, B.D. Immunology (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Modified latex agglutination test for rapid detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae in cerebrospinal fluid and direct serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Singhal, A., Lalitha, M.K., John, T.J., Thomas, K., Raghupathy, P., Jacob, S., Steinhoff, M.C. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus in patients with cystic fibrosis. Branger, C., Fournier, J.M., Loulergue, J., Bouvet, A., Goullet, P., Boutonnier, A., de Gialluly, C., Couetdic, G., Chomarat, M., Jaffar-Banjee, M.C. Epidemiol. Infect. (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. HLA-typing and lymphocyte population studies in patients with multiple sclerosis. Reekers, P., Hommes, O.R., Creemers-Molenaar, J., Wijnings, J., Kunst, V.A., Van Rood, J.J. J. Neurol. Sci. (1977) [Pubmed]
  26. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in North Carolina: epidemiology, clinical features, and genetic and serotype analysis of causative organisms. Kiska, D.L., Thiede, B., Caracciolo, J., Jordan, M., Johnson, D., Kaplan, E.L., Gruninger, R.P., Lohr, J.A., Gilligan, P.H., Denny, F.W. J. Infect. Dis. (1997) [Pubmed]
  27. Results of a screening method used in a 12-month stool survey for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Harris, A.A., Kaplan, R.L., Goodman, L.J., Doyle, M., Landau, W., Segreti, J., Mayer, K., Levin, S. J. Infect. Dis. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Latex assay for serotyping of group B Streptococcus isolates. Slotved, H.C., Elliott, J., Thompson, T., Konradsen, H.B. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  29. Outbreak of nosocomial urinary tract infections caused by Serratia marcescens. Okuda, T., Endo, N., Osada, Y., Zen-Yoji, H. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Nosocomial transmission of Serratia marcescens in a veterinary hospital due to contamination by benzalkonium chloride. Fox, J.G., Beaucage, C.M., Folta, C.A., Thornton, G.W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  31. Adjuvant immunotherapy of resected, intermediate-thickness, node-negative melanoma with an allogeneic tumor vaccine: impact of HLA class I antigen expression on outcome. Sosman, J.A., Unger, J.M., Liu, P.Y., Flaherty, L.E., Park, M.S., Kempf, R.A., Thompson, J.A., Terasaki, P.I., Sondak, V.K. J. Clin. Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  32. A method for estimating the intensity of overdominant selection from the distribution of allele frequencies. Slatkin, M., Muirhead, C.A. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. The association of class I HLA alleles and antibody levels after a single dose of measles vaccine. Jacobson, R.M., Poland, G.A., Vierkant, R.A., Pankratz, V.S., Schaid, D.J., Jacobsen, S.J., Sauver, J.S., Moore, S.B. Hum. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. The discovery and preliminary characterization of a novel trypanosomatid parasite from Rattus norvegicus and stray dogs from Alexandria, Egypt. Morsy, T.A., Schnur, L.F., Feinsod, F.M., Michael, S.A., Saah, A., Salama, M.M., Wahba, M.M. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  35. Immunogenetic study of couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions. Bellingard, V., Hedon, B., Eliaou, J.F., Seignalet, J., Clot, J., Viala, J.L. Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  36. Characterization of a multidrug-resistant clone of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 6B in Alaska by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and PspA serotyping. Rudolph, K.M., Crain, M.J., Parkinson, A.J., Roberts, M.C. J. Infect. Dis. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Porcine rotaviruses antigenically related to human rotavirus serotypes 1 and 2. Bellinzoni, R.B., Mattion, N.M., Matson, D.O., Blackhall, J., La Torre, J.L., Scodeller, E.A., Urasawa, S., Taniguchi, K., Estes, M.K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Rapid identification of the coxsackievirus A24 variant by molecular serotyping in an outbreak of acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis. Park, S.W., Lee, C.S., Jang, H.C., Kim, E.C., Oh, M.D., Choe, K.W. J. Clin. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Discrimination of Campylobacter jejuni isolates by fla gene sequencing. Meinersmann, R.J., Helsel, L.O., Fields, P.I., Hiett, K.L. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  40. An outbreak of group B meningococcal disease: tracing the causative strain of Neisseria meningitidis by DNA fingerprinting. Kristiansen, B.E., Sørensen, B., Bjorvatn, B., Falk, E.S., Fosse, E., Bryn, K., Frøholm, L.O., Gaustad, P., Bøvre, K. J. Clin. Microbiol. (1986) [Pubmed]
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