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Gene Review

LRRC32  -  leucine rich repeat containing 32

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: D11S833E, GARP, Garpin, Glycoprotein A repetitions predominant, Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 32
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Disease relevance of LRRC32

  • 11q13 alterations in two cases of hibernoma: large heterozygous deletions and rearrangement breakpoints near GARP in 11q13.5 [1].
  • As a tribute to the complexity of the amplification events involving 11q13 sequences in human breast cancer, we have now studied a more telomeric region at 11q13.5-q14 defined by a new transcription unit, D11S833E [2].

High impact information on LRRC32

  • We have observed that amplicons present in cell lines and primary tumors amplified for both BCL1 and D11S833E could be interrupted between these two loci [2].

Biological context of LRRC32

  • GARP comprises two coding exons, is expressed as two major transcripts of 4.4 and 2.8 kilobases, respectively, and encodes a putative transmembrane protein of 662 amino acids, the extracellular portion of which is almost entirely made of leucine-rich repeats [3].
  • The mouse GARP deduced amino-acid sequence is highly similar to that of the human protein [4].
  • GARP/LRRC32 is selectively expressed in activated human regulatory T-cells (Treg), thus representing a bona fide Treg marker. GARP/LRRC32 binds LAP/latent TGF-beta [5].

Anatomical context of LRRC32

  • The Garp gene is expressed in various areas in the mid-gestation developing embryo, including skin, lens fibre cells, nasal cavity, smooth and skeletal muscles, lung, and megakaryocytes of the fetal liver [4].
  • GARP/LRRC32 is expressed not only on Treg cells, but also on platelets [6], the precursor of which interestingly also express FOXP3 [7], corroborating a close interelation between FOXP3 and GARP/LRRC32 in some cells [8]



Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LRRC32



  1. 11q13 alterations in two cases of hibernoma: large heterozygous deletions and rearrangement breakpoints near GARP in 11q13.5. Maire, G., Forus, A., Foa, C., Bjerkehagen, B., Mainguené, C., Kresse, S.H., Myklebost, O., Pedeutour, F. Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. DNA amplification at 11q13.5-q14 in human breast cancer. Szepetowski, P., Ollendorff, V., Grosgeorge, J., Courseaux, A., Birnbaum, D., Theillet, C., Gaudray, P. Oncogene (1992) [Pubmed]
  3. The GARP gene encodes a new member of the family of leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins. Ollendorff, V., Noguchi, T., deLapeyriere, O., Birnbaum, D. Cell Growth Differ. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Structure and developmental expression of mouse Garp, a gene encoding a new leucine-rich repeat-containing protein. Roubin, R., Pizette, S., Ollendorff, V., Planche, J., Birnbaum, D., Delapeyriere, O. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. The Tregs' world according to GARP. Battaglia, M., Roncarolo, M.G. Eur. J. Immunol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  6. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-beta on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells. Tran, D.Q., Andersson, J., Wang, R., Ramsey, H., Unutmaz, D., Shevach, E.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. (2009) [Pubmed]
  7. Foxp3 regulates megakaryopoiesis and platelet function. Bernard, J.J., Seweryniak, K.E., Koniski, A.D., Spinelli, S.L., Blumberg, N., Francis, C.W., Taubman, M.B., Palis, J., Phipps, R.P. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  8. FOXP3 and GARP (LRRC32): the master and its minion. Probst-Kepper, M., Buer, J. Biol. Direct. (2010) [Pubmed]
  9. Characterisation of the loci encoding the glutamic acid and alanine rich protein of Trypanosoma congolense. Rangarajan, D., Harvey, T.I., Barry, J.D. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. (2000) [Pubmed]
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