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Gene Review

kl-5  -  male fertility factor kl5

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: CG12573, CG17616, CG40444, Dhc, Dhc-Yh3, ...
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Disease relevance of kl-5


High impact information on kl-5

  • The closest paralogs of kl-2, kl-3, and PRY (and also of kl-5) are autosomal and not X-linked, suggesting that the evolution of the Drosophila Y chromosome has been driven by an accumulation of male-related genes arising de novo from the autosomes [2].
  • In the present study, we demonstrate that one of the dynein genes, Dhc-Yh3, is located in Y chromosome region h3, which is contained within kl-5, a locus required for male fertility [3].
  • In situ hybridization to Drosophila testes shows Dhc-Yh3 is expressed in wild-type males but not in males missing the kl-5 region [3].
  • Experiments using dosage variation and a temperature-sensitive sterile mutation in kl-5 suggest that the Y-chromosome regions contain the coding sequences for the polypeptides [4].
  • In contrast, the kl-3 and kl-5 mutations had no effect on spermatid individualization despite the defect in the axonemes [1].

Biological context of kl-5

  • Detailed mapping of satellite DNA sequences along the Y chromosome has recently shown that AA-GAC satellite repeats are a significant component of the kl-5 and ks-1 loop-forming regions [5].

Anatomical context of kl-5


Regulatory relationships of kl-5

  • Use of a transgenic construct expressing TrxT fused to Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein reveals a clear association of TrxT with the Y chromosome lampbrush loops ks-1 and kl-5 in primary spermatocytes [7].

Other interactions of kl-5

  • Otherwise, there is evidence from genetic mapping and biochemical experiments that at least two of these loops, Threads in Drosophila hydei and kl-5 in D. melanogaster, colocalize with the genes for the axonemal dynein beta heavy chain proteins DhDhc7(Y) and Dhc-Yh3, respectively [8].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of kl-5

  • Moreover, preliminary sequence analysis and several other features support the hypothesis that DhDhc7(Y) on the lampbrush loops Threads in D. hydei and Dhc-Yh3 on the lampbrush loops kl-5 in Drosophila melanogaster on the heterochromatic Y chromosome of both species might indeed code for orthologous dynein beta heavy chain proteins [9].


  1. Genetic analysis of a Y-chromosome region that induces triplosterile phenotypes and is essential for spermatid individualization in Drosophila melanogaster. Timakov, B., Zhang, P. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Y chromosomal fertility factors kl-2 and kl-3 of Drosophila melanogaster encode dynein heavy chain polypeptides. Carvalho, A.B., Lazzaro, B.P., Clark, A.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. A fertility region on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster encodes a dynein microtubule motor. Gepner, J., Hays, T.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Structural genes on the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Goldstein, L.S., Hardy, R.W., Lindsley, D.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  5. Transcription of a satellite DNA on two Y chromosome loops of Drosophila melanogaster. Bonaccorsi, S., Gatti, M., Pisano, C., Lohe, A. Chromosoma (1990) [Pubmed]
  6. The kl-3 loop of the Y chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster binds a tektin-like protein. Pisano, C., Bonaccorsi, S., Gatti, M. Genetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. The ThioredoxinT and deadhead gene pair encode testis- and ovary-specific thioredoxins in Drosophila melanogaster. Svensson, M.J., Chen, J.D., Pirrotta, V., Larsson, J. Chromosoma (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Mega-introns in the dynein gene DhDhc7(Y) on the heterochromatic Y chromosome give rise to the giant threads loops in primary spermatocytes of Drosophila hydei. Reugels, A.M., Kurek, R., Lammermann, U., Bünemann, H. Genetics (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. The Y chromosomal fertility factor Threads in Drosophila hydei harbors a functional gene encoding an axonemal dynein beta heavy chain protein. Kurek, R., Reugels, A.M., Glätzer, K.H., Bünemann, H. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
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