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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Testis


Psychiatry related information on Testis


High impact information on Testis


Chemical compound and disease context of Testis


Biological context of Testis

  • We now report the presence of Xist/XIST transcripts in newborn and adult mouse testes, and in human testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis, but not in the testes of patients who lack germ cells [21].
  • We have adopted a PCR-based, DNA pooling method for mice with 'extreme' phenotypes (small testes versus normal-sized testes) to identify a candidate linkage to the Ter locus [22].
  • The distribution of poly(A)+ and poly(A)- protamine messenger RNA sequences in the developing trout testis [23].
  • These results suggest that eliminating the presumptive female reproductive tract in male fetuses facilitates fertility and that in testes MIS is a negative regulator of Leydig cell proliferation [24].
  • The demonstration that the normal human testes contain a glycoprotein similar or identical to human chorionic gonadotropin suggests that the fetal genome responsible for production of the hormone during pregnancy is not completely suppressed in the adult [25].

Anatomical context of Testis

  • Excessive productton of this glycoprotein may account for the high levels of human chorionic gonadotropin reported in the serum of patients with germ-cell tumors of the testes [25].
  • In both the testis and the epididymis, CFTR expression is developmentally regulated suggesting that the defect in the genital tract of male CF patients is of developmental origin [26].
  • Expression of Bclw in the testis appears to be restricted to elongating spermatids and Sertoli cells [27].
  • In adult testis, FMR-1 was detected only in spermatogonia [28].
  • Sry is expressed at higher levels in the adult testis, where no function has been determined, than in the genital ridge, its critical site of action. cDNA and 5' RACE clones isolated from testis or from Sry-transfected cell lines have an unusual structure, with 3' sequences located in a 5' position [29].

Associations of Testis with chemical compounds


Gene context of Testis

  • SOX9 encodes a putative transcription factor structurally related to the testis-determining factor SRY and is expressed in many adult tissues, and in fetal testis and skeletal tissue [34].
  • Here, we show that Sox9 is sufficient to induce testis formation in mice, indicating that it can substitute for the sex-determining gene Sry [13].
  • Male mice homozygous for the mutant SF1-binding site correctly initiated Mis transcription in fetal testes, although at significantly reduced levels [35].
  • Leydig insulin-like hormone (Insl3) is a member of the insulin hormone superfamily expressed in the developing testis [36].
  • We report here that autosomal liver-specific Phk deficiency is associated with mutations in the gene encoding the testis/liver isoform of the catalytic gamma subunit (PHKG2) [4].
  • Expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos and the immunolocalization of c-fos, phosphorylated c-fos and estrogen receptor beta in the human testis [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Testis



  1. Diverse spermatogenic defects in humans caused by Y chromosome deletions encompassing a novel RNA-binding protein gene. Reijo, R., Lee, T.Y., Salo, P., Alagappan, R., Brown, L.G., Rosenberg, M., Rozen, S., Jaffe, T., Straus, D., Hovatta, O. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. Human Rad51 protein promotes ATP-dependent homologous pairing and strand transfer reactions in vitro. Baumann, P., Benson, F.E., West, S.C. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Pheochromocytomas, multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2, and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Neumann, H.P., Berger, D.P., Sigmund, G., Blum, U., Schmidt, D., Parmer, R.J., Volk, B., Kirste, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Mutations in the testis/liver isoform of the phosphorylase kinase gamma subunit (PHKG2) cause autosomal liver glycogenosis in the gsd rat and in humans. Maichele, A.J., Burwinkel, B., Maire, I., Søvik, O., Kilimann, M.W. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Monosodium glutamate admlinistration to the newborn reduces reproductive ability in female and male mice. Pizzi, W.J., Barnhart, J.E., Fanslow, D.J. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Renpenning syndrome maps to Xp11. Stevenson, R.E., Arena, J.F., Ouzts, E., Gibson, A., Shokeir, M.H., Vnencak-Jones, C., Lubs, H.A., May, M., Schwartz, C.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Induction of increased testis growth and sperm production in adult rats by neonatal administration of the goitrogen propylthiouracil (PTU): the critical period. Cooke, P.S., Porcelli, J., Hess, R.A. Biol. Reprod. (1992) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of gonadal sex steroids on sexual behavior in the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, upon arousal from hibernation. Mendonça, M.T., Chernetsky, S.D., Nester, K.E., Gardner, G.L. Hormones and behavior. (1996) [Pubmed]
  9. Changes in GABA-benzodiazepine receptor complex and in peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in male mice after copulation. Saano, V., Rägo, L., Tupala, E., Airaksinen, M.M. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. The effect of cyproterone acetate on motor activity, aggression, "emotionality", body weight and testes in wild mice. Matte, A.C., Fabian, E. Andrologia (1978) [Pubmed]
  11. Role of endocytosis in cellular uptake of sex steroids. Hammes, A., Andreassen, T.K., Spoelgen, R., Raila, J., Hubner, N., Schulz, H., Metzger, J., Schweigert, F.J., Luppa, P.B., Nykjaer, A., Willnow, T.E. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Dax1 is required for testis determination. Meeks, J.J., Weiss, J., Jameson, J.L. Nat. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Sox9 induces testis development in XX transgenic mice. Vidal, V.P., Chaboissier, M.C., de Rooij, D.G., Schedl, A. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  14. Identification of the gene altered in Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy on chromosome 11q13. Magré, J., Delépine, M., Khallouf, E., Gedde-Dahl, T., Van Maldergem, L., Sobel, E., Papp, J., Meier, M., Mégarbané, A., Bachy, A., Verloes, A., d'Abronzo, F.H., Seemanova, E., Assan, R., Baudic, N., Bourut, C., Czernichow, P., Huet, F., Grigorescu, F., de Kerdanet, M., Lacombe, D., Labrune, P., Lanza, M., Loret, H., Matsuda, F., Navarro, J., Nivelon-Chevalier, A., Polak, M., Robert, J.J., Tric, P., Tubiana-Rufi, N., Vigouroux, C., Weissenbach, J., Savasta, S., Maassen, J.A., Trygstad, O., Bogalho, P., Freitas, P., Medina, J.L., Bonnicci, F., Joffe, B.I., Loyson, G., Panz, V.R., Raal, F.J., O'Rahilly, S., Stephenson, T., Kahn, C.R., Lathrop, M., Capeau, J. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Spermiogenesis and exchange of basic nuclear proteins are impaired in male germ cells lacking Camk4. Wu, J.Y., Ribar, T.J., Cummings, D.E., Burton, K.A., McKnight, G.S., Means, A.R. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. p27(Kip1) induction and inhibition of proliferation by the intracellular Ah receptor in developing thymus and hepatoma cells. Kolluri, S.K., Weiss, C., Koff, A., Göttlicher, M. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of spontaneous and experimentally induced canine prostatic hyperplasia. DeKlerk, D.P., Coffey, D.S., Ewing, L.L., McDermott, I.R., Reiner, W.G., Robinson, C.H., Scott, W.W., Strandberg, J.D., Talalay, P., Walsh, P.C., Wheaton, L.G., Zirkin, B.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  18. Tissue guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate levels and soluble guanylate cyclase activity: a positive correlation during unilateral cryptorchidism in the rat testis. Spruill, W.A., Steiner, A.L., Earp, H.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1978) [Pubmed]
  19. Steroid sulphatase deficiency associated with testis cancer. Lykkesfeldt, G., Høyer, H., Lykkesfeldt, A.E., Skakkebaek, N.E. Lancet (1983) [Pubmed]
  20. Hox-5.1 defines a homeobox-containing gene locus on mouse chromosome 2. Featherstone, M.S., Baron, A., Gaunt, S.J., Mattei, M.G., Duboule, D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of the X-inactivation-associated gene XIST during spermatogenesis. Salido, E.C., Yen, P.H., Mohandas, T.K., Shapiro, L.J. Nat. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  22. A mutation in the Ter gene causing increased susceptibility to testicular teratomas maps to mouse chromosome 18. Asada, Y., Varnum, D.S., Frankel, W.N., Nadeau, J.H. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. The distribution of poly(A)+ and poly(A)- protamine messenger RNA sequences in the developing trout testis. Iatrou, K., Dixon, G.H. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  24. Müllerian-inhibiting substance function during mammalian sexual development. Behringer, R.R., Finegold, M.J., Cate, R.L. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  25. Presence in normal human testes of a chorionic-gonadotropin-like substance distinct from human luteinizing hormone. Braunstein, G.D., Rasor, J., Wade, M.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. CFTR expression is regulated during both the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and the oestrous cycle of rodents. Trezise, A.E., Linder, C.C., Grieger, D., Thompson, E.W., Meunier, H., Griswold, M.D., Buchwald, M. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  27. Testicular degeneration in Bclw-deficient mice. Ross, A.J., Waymire, K.G., Moss, J.E., Parlow, A.F., Skinner, M.K., Russell, L.D., MacGregor, G.R. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  28. The FMR-1 protein is cytoplasmic, most abundant in neurons and appears normal in carriers of a fragile X premutation. Devys, D., Lutz, Y., Rouyer, N., Bellocq, J.P., Mandel, J.L. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Circular transcripts of the testis-determining gene Sry in adult mouse testis. Capel, B., Swain, A., Nicolis, S., Hacker, A., Walter, M., Koopman, P., Goodfellow, P., Lovell-Badge, R. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Measurements of serum müllerian inhibiting substance in the evaluation of children with nonpalpable gonads. Lee, M.M., Donahoe, P.K., Silverman, B.L., Hasegawa, T., Hasegawa, Y., Gustafson, M.L., Chang, Y.C., MacLaughlin, D.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Male pseudohermaphroditism caused by mutations of testicular 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3. Geissler, W.M., Davis, D.L., Wu, L., Bradshaw, K.D., Patel, S., Mendonca, B.B., Elliston, K.O., Wilson, J.D., Russell, D.W., Andersson, S. Nat. Genet. (1994) [Pubmed]
  32. Lactogenic receptor regulation in hormone-stimulated steroidogenic cells. Davies, T.F., Katikineni, M., Chan, V., Harwood, J.P., Dufau, M.L., Catt, K.J. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  33. Estrogen and spermatogenesis. O'Donnell, L., Robertson, K.M., Jones, M.E., Simpson, E.R. Endocr. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Autosomal sex reversal and campomelic dysplasia are caused by mutations in and around the SRY-related gene SOX9. Wagner, T., Wirth, J., Meyer, J., Zabel, B., Held, M., Zimmer, J., Pasantes, J., Bricarelli, F.D., Keutel, J., Hustert, E. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Targeted mutagenesis of the endogenous mouse Mis gene promoter: in vivo definition of genetic pathways of vertebrate sexual development. Arango, N.A., Lovell-Badge, R., Behringer, R.R. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Cryptorchidism in mice mutant for Insl3. Nef, S., Parada, L.F. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos and the immunolocalization of c-fos, phosphorylated c-fos and estrogen receptor beta in the human testis. Araújo, F.C., Oliveira, C.A., Reis, A.B., Del Puerto, H.L., Martins, A.S., Reis, F.M. Histol. Histopathol. (2009) [Pubmed]
  38. Spermatogenic failure in male mice lacking H-Y antigen. Burgoyne, P.S., Levy, E.R., McLaren, A. Nature (1986) [Pubmed]
  39. Y chromosome microdeletions and alterations of spermatogenesis. Foresta, C., Moro, E., Ferlin, A. Endocr. Rev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  40. A mouse homeo box gene is expressed in spermatocytes and embryos. Rubin, M.R., Toth, L.E., Patel, M.D., D'Eustachio, P., Nguyen-Huu, M.C. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  41. Differences between purified ectopic and normal alpha subnits of human glycoprotein hormones. Weintraub, B.D., Krauth, G., Rosen, S.W., Babson, A.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  42. A mouse zinc finger gene which is transiently expressed during spermatogenesis. Cunliffe, V., Koopman, P., McLaren, A., Trowsdale, J. EMBO J. (1990) [Pubmed]
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