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Gene Review

Gug  -  Grunge

Drosophila melanogaster

Synonyms: Atro, CG6964, Dmel\CG6964, GUG, atro, ...
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High impact information on Gug


Biological context of Gug

  • First, Grunge is crucial for correct segmentation during embryogenesis via a failure in the repression of at least four segmentation genes known to regulate teashirt [3].
  • We show that mutations in Atro and Sbb have similar phenotypes, including upregulation of the same genes in imaginal discs, which suggests that Sbb cooperates with Atro to provide repressive activity [4].

Regulatory relationships of Gug

  • Second, Grunge acts positively to regulate teashirt expression in proximoventral parts of the leg [3].

Other interactions of Gug

  • These defects likely result from a reduction in Even-skipped (Eve) repression ability, as Atro has been shown to function as a corepressor for Eve [5].
  • Atrophin contributes to the negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in Drosophila [6].
  • We provide evidence that Grunge is required for the proper regulation of teashirt but also has multiple activities in fly development [3].


  1. Drosophila atrophin homolog functions as a transcriptional corepressor in multiple developmental processes. Zhang, S., Xu, L., Lee, J., Xu, T. Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  2. The tumor-suppressor and cell adhesion molecule Fat controls planar polarity via physical interactions with Atrophin, a transcriptional co-repressor. Fanto, M., Clayton, L., Meredith, J., Hardiman, K., Charroux, B., Kerridge, S., McNeill, H. Development (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Grunge, related to human Atrophin-like proteins, has multiple functions in Drosophila development. Erkner, A., Roure, A., Charroux, B., Delaage, M., Holway, N., Coré, N., Vola, C., Angelats, C., Pagès, F., Fasano, L., Kerridge, S. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Genetic interactions among scribbler, Atrophin and groucho in Drosophila uncover links in transcriptional repression. Wehn, A., Campbell, G. Genetics (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. A screen for genes that interact with the Drosophila pair-rule segmentation gene fushi tarazu. Kankel, M.W., Duncan, D.M., Duncan, I. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Atrophin contributes to the negative regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in Drosophila. Charroux, B., Freeman, M., Kerridge, S., Baonza, A. Dev. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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