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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Photoreceptors


Psychiatry related information on Photoreceptors


High impact information on Photoreceptors


Chemical compound and disease context of Photoreceptors

  • Taken together, these results indicate that the photoreceptor and ganglion cells are distinguished by a rapid synthesis of choline-containing phospholipids, while acetylcholine synthesis is restricted to a few cells at both margins of the inner plexiform layer [15].
  • Phytobilins (light harvesting and photoreceptor pigments in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria) are synthesized from biliverdin IXalpha (BV) by ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases (FDBRs) [16].
  • Together with earlier observations that the COOH-terminal domains of the plant phytochromes also have sequence similarity to the histidine kinases, these data suggest that the cyanobacteria utilize photoregulated histidine kinases as a sensory system and that the plant phytochromes may be evolutionary descendants of these photoreceptors [17].
  • Purification and characterization of three members of the photolyase/cryptochrome family glue-light photoreceptors from Vibrio cholerae [18].
  • Onset and severity of uveitogenic peptide (1-20) of interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein-induced experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis is accelerated in CD200(-/-) mice and although tissue destruction appears no greater than seen in CD200(+/+) mice, there is continued increased ganglion and photoreceptor cell apoptosis [19].

Biological context of Photoreceptors


Anatomical context of Photoreceptors


Associations of Photoreceptors with chemical compounds


Gene context of Photoreceptors

  • Severe norpA mutations in Drosophila eliminate the photoreceptor potential and render the fly completely blind [33].
  • The Egfr triggers cell recruitment in the eye, and sprouty- eyes have excess photoreceptors, cone cells, and pigment cells [34].
  • The photoreceptors in the Nrl-/- retina have cone-like nuclear morphology and short, sparse outer segments with abnormal disks [35].
  • A photoreceptor cell-specific ATP-binding transporter gene (ABCR) is mutated in recessive Stargardt macular dystrophy [36].
  • A developmental analysis of argos mutant eyes indicates that the mystery cells, which are usually nonneuronal, are transformed into extra photoreceptors, and that supernumerary cone cells and pigment cells are also recruited [37].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Photoreceptors


  1. A null mutation in the human peripherin/RDS gene in a family with autosomal dominant retinitis punctata albescens. Kajiwara, K., Sandberg, M.A., Berson, E.L., Dryja, T.P. Nat. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Night blindness in Sorsby's fundus dystrophy reversed by vitamin A. Jacobson, S.G., Cideciyan, A.V., Regunath, G., Rodriguez, F.J., Vandenburgh, K., Sheffield, V.C., Stone, E.M. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  3. Ribozyme rescue of photoreceptor cells in a transgenic rat model of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Lewin, A.S., Drenser, K.A., Hauswirth, W.W., Nishikawa, S., Yasumura, D., Flannery, J.G., LaVail, M.M. Nat. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Apoptosis or retinoblastoma: alternative fates of photoreceptors expressing the HPV-16 E7 gene in the presence or absence of p53. Howes, K.A., Ransom, N., Papermaster, D.S., Lasudry, J.G., Albert, D.M., Windle, J.J. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Crx, a novel Otx-like paired-homeodomain protein, binds to and transactivates photoreceptor cell-specific genes. Chen, S., Wang, Q.L., Nie, Z., Sun, H., Lennon, G., Copeland, N.G., Gilbert, D.J., Jenkins, N.A., Zack, D.J. Neuron (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Genetics of chemotaxis and thermotaxis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Mori, I. Annu. Rev. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Photoreceptor dystrophy in the RCS rat: roles of oxygen, debris, and bFGF. Valter, K., Maslim, J., Bowers, F., Stone, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Electrophysiological responses to light of neurons in the eye and statocyst of Lymnaea stagnalis. Sakakibara, M., Aritaka, T., Iizuka, A., Suzuki, H., Horikoshi, T., Lukowiak, K. J. Neurophysiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina. Rachel, R.A., Dolen, G., Hayes, N.L., Lu, A., Erskine, L., Nowakowski, R.S., Mason, C.A. J. Neurosci. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Cryptochrome: the second photoactive pigment in the eye and its role in circadian photoreception. Sancar, A. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. Kaupp, U.B., Seifert, R. Physiol. Rev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. Nephrocystin-5, a ciliary IQ domain protein, is mutated in Senior-Loken syndrome and interacts with RPGR and calmodulin. Otto, E.A., Loeys, B., Khanna, H., Hellemans, J., Sudbrak, R., Fan, S., Muerb, U., O'Toole, J.F., Helou, J., Attanasio, M., Utsch, B., Sayer, J.A., Lillo, C., Jimeno, D., Coucke, P., De Paepe, A., Reinhardt, R., Klages, S., Tsuda, M., Kawakami, I., Kusakabe, T., Omran, H., Imm, A., Tippens, M., Raymond, P.A., Hill, J., Beales, P., He, S., Kispert, A., Margolis, B., Williams, D.S., Swaroop, A., Hildebrandt, F. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. The growth regulators warts/lats and melted interact in a bistable loop to specify opposite fates in Drosophila R8 photoreceptors. Mikeladze-Dvali, T., Wernet, M.F., Pistillo, D., Mazzoni, E.O., Teleman, A.A., Chen, Y.W., Cohen, S., Desplan, C. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. A microRNA mediates EGF receptor signaling and promotes photoreceptor differentiation in the Drosophila eye. Li, X., Carthew, R.W. Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Autoradiographic identification of acetylcholine in the rabbit retina. Masland, R.H., Mills, J.W. J. Cell Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Crystal structure of phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase in complex with biliverdin IXalpha, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of phycocyanobilin. Hagiwara, Y., Sugishima, M., Takahashi, Y., Fukuyama, K. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. The phytochromes: a biochemical mechanism of signaling in sight? Quail, P.H. Bioessays (1997) [Pubmed]
  18. Purification and characterization of three members of the photolyase/cryptochrome family glue-light photoreceptors from Vibrio cholerae. Worthington, E.N., Kavakli, I.H., Berrocal-Tito, G., Bondo, B.E., Sancar, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Constitutive retinal CD200 expression regulates resident microglia and activation state of inflammatory cells during experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis. Broderick, C., Hoek, R.M., Forrester, J.V., Liversidge, J., Sedgwick, J.D., Dick, A.D. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Genetic evidence for selective transport of opsin and arrestin by kinesin-II in mammalian photoreceptors. Marszalek, J.R., Liu, X., Roberts, E.A., Chui, D., Marth, J.D., Williams, D.S., Goldstein, L.S. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Mutation of a nuclear receptor gene, NR2E3, causes enhanced S cone syndrome, a disorder of retinal cell fate. Haider, N.B., Jacobson, S.G., Cideciyan, A.V., Swiderski, R., Streb, L.M., Searby, C., Beck, G., Hockey, R., Hanna, D.B., Gorman, S., Duhl, D., Carmi, R., Bennett, J., Weleber, R.G., Fishman, G.A., Wright, A.F., Stone, E.M., Sheffield, V.C. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Chaoptin, a cell surface glycoprotein required for Drosophila photoreceptor cell morphogenesis, contains a repeat motif found in yeast and human. Reinke, R., Krantz, D.E., Yen, D., Zipursky, S.L. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Restoration of photoreceptor ultrastructure and function in retinal degeneration slow mice by gene therapy. Ali, R.R., Sarra, G.M., Stephens, C., Alwis, M.D., Bainbridge, J.W., Munro, P.M., Fauser, S., Reichel, M.B., Kinnon, C., Hunt, D.M., Bhattacharya, S.S., Thrasher, A.J. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Rom-1 is required for rod photoreceptor viability and the regulation of disk morphogenesis. Clarke, G., Goldberg, A.F., Vidgen, D., Collins, L., Ploder, L., Schwarz, L., Molday, L.L., Rossant, J., Szél, A., Molday, R.S., Birch, D.G., McInnes, R.R. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. Pak functions downstream of Dock to regulate photoreceptor axon guidance in Drosophila. Hing, H., Xiao, J., Harden, N., Lim, L., Zipursky, S.L. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  26. A circadian oscillator in cultured cells of chicken pineal gland. Deguchi, T. Nature (1979) [Pubmed]
  27. Drosophila Crumbs is a positional cue in photoreceptor adherens junctions and rhabdomeres. Izaddoost, S., Nam, S.C., Bhat, M.A., Bellen, H.J., Choi, K.W. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Neuronal development in the Drosophila retina: monoclonal antibodies as molecular probes. Zipursky, S.L., Venkatesh, T.R., Teplow, D.B., Benzer, S. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  29. Mutations in RPE65 cause autosomal recessive childhood-onset severe retinal dystrophy. Gu, S.M., Thompson, D.A., Srikumari, C.R., Lorenz, B., Finckh, U., Nicoletti, A., Murthy, K.R., Rathmann, M., Kumaramanickavel, G., Denton, M.J., Gal, A. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  30. Cryptochromes: enabling plants and animals to determine circadian time. Cashmore, A.R. Cell (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Ligand-independent activation of the sevenless receptor tyrosine kinase changes the fate of cells in the developing Drosophila eye. Basler, K., Christen, B., Hafen, E. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. The Drosophila seven-up gene, a member of the steroid receptor gene superfamily, controls photoreceptor cell fates. Mlodzik, M., Hiromi, Y., Weber, U., Goodman, C.S., Rubin, G.M. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Isolation of a putative phospholipase C gene of Drosophila, norpA, and its role in phototransduction. Bloomquist, B.T., Shortridge, R.D., Schneuwly, S., Perdew, M., Montell, C., Steller, H., Rubin, G., Pak, W.L. Cell (1988) [Pubmed]
  34. Sprouty, an intracellular inhibitor of Ras signaling. Casci, T., Vinós, J., Freeman, M. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Nrl is required for rod photoreceptor development. Mears, A.J., Kondo, M., Swain, P.K., Takada, Y., Bush, R.A., Saunders, T.L., Sieving, P.A., Swaroop, A. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. A photoreceptor cell-specific ATP-binding transporter gene (ABCR) is mutated in recessive Stargardt macular dystrophy. Allikmets, R., Singh, N., Sun, H., Shroyer, N.F., Hutchinson, A., Chidambaram, A., Gerrard, B., Baird, L., Stauffer, D., Peiffer, A., Rattner, A., Smallwood, P., Li, Y., Anderson, K.L., Lewis, R.A., Nathans, J., Leppert, M., Dean, M., Lupski, J.R. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. The argos gene encodes a diffusible factor that regulates cell fate decisions in the Drosophila eye. Freeman, M., Klämbt, C., Goodman, C.S., Rubin, G.M. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  38. Protein kinase C is required for light adaptation in Drosophila photoreceptors. Hardie, R.C., Peretz, A., Suss-Toby, E., Rom-Glas, A., Bishop, S.A., Selinger, Z., Minke, B. Nature (1993) [Pubmed]
  39. Release of endogenous excitatory amino acids from turtle photoreceptors. Copenhagen, D.R., Jahr, C.E. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  40. Circadian regulation of iodopsin gene expression in embryonic photoreceptors in retinal cell culture. Pierce, M.E., Sheshberadaran, H., Zhang, Z., Fox, L.E., Applebury, M.L., Takahashi, J.S. Neuron (1993) [Pubmed]
  41. Molecular cloning and characterization of retinal photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase-activating protein. Palczewski, K., Subbaraya, I., Gorczyca, W.A., Helekar, B.S., Ruiz, C.C., Ohguro, H., Huang, J., Zhao, X., Crabb, J.W., Johnson, R.S. Neuron (1994) [Pubmed]
  42. Molecular dissection of the photoreceptor ribbon synapse: physical interaction of Bassoon and RIBEYE is essential for the assembly of the ribbon complex. tom Dieck, S., Altrock, W.D., Kessels, M.M., Qualmann, B., Regus, H., Brauner, D., Fejtová, A., Bracko, O., Gundelfinger, E.D., Brandstätter, J.H. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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