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Gene Review

PIN3  -  protein, NIMA-interacting 3

Homo sapiens

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Disease relevance of PIN3

  • We immunostained histologic sections of 63 prostates, containing 235 morphologic appearances: normal prostate glands, 43; benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), 59; basal cell hyperplasia (BCH), 24; adenosis, seven; prostatic intraductal neoplasia (PIN 1), 21; PIN 2, 25; PIN 3, 16; and cancer, 40 [1].
  • METHODS: All TURP specimens accessioned to the general surgical pathology service of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) from March 1984 through December 1987 that did not contain adenocarcinoma of the prostate were reviewed for the presence of high-grade PIN (PIN 2 and PIN 3) [2].
  • Penile intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 (PIN 3) and penile carcinomas were examined for the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) RNA transcripts by in situ hybridization using 125I-labeled RNA probes [3].
  • Human papillomavirus transcripts were detected in all 10 PIN 3 lesions not associated with invasive malignant conditions but were present in only 29% of penile carcinomas (9 of 26 squamous cell carcinomas and none of 5 verrucous carcinomas) [3].
  • Human papillomavirus RNA-positive penile cancers were significantly more likely to exhibit adjacent PIN 3 lesions than were HPV-negative tumors, and PIN 3 lesions adjacent to tumors always contained the same HPV-RNA type as was present in the invasive tumor [3].

High impact information on PIN3

  • Three polyclonal antisera were raised against synthetic peptide fragments from the proregion (amino acids 21-35 = precursor alpha inhibin (PIN) 1 and 42-56 = PIN 2) and alpha-N segment (113-127 = PIN 3) of the human alpha-inhibin precursor protein [4].
  • The proliferation index was significantly higher in PIN 3 and cancers as compared to BPH, PIN 1, and PIN 2 tissues [5].
  • Additionally, a decrease in the number of foci of grade 3 prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN-3) was noted in a small number of patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[6]

Other interactions of PIN3

  • This finding supports combining PIN2 and PIN3 into high-grade PIN [7].


  1. Cytokeratin immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing malignant from benign epithelial lesions of the prostate. Shah, I.A., Schlageter, M.O., Stinnett, P., Lechago, J. Mod. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  2. Incidence and clinical significance of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in TURP specimens. Gaudin, P.B., Sesterhenn, I.A., Wojno, K.J., Mostofi, F.K., Epstein, J.I. Urology (1997) [Pubmed]
  3. Differing prevalence of human papillomavirus RNA in penile dysplasias and carcinomas may reflect differing etiologies. Higgins, G.D., Uzelin, D.M., Phillips, G.E., Villa, L.L., Burrell, C.J. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  4. Extragonadal alpha-inhibin precursor proteins circulate in human male serum. Lambert-Messerlian, G.M., Crowley, W.F., Schneyer, A.L. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Morphonuclear relationship between prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and cancers as assessed by digital cell image analysis. Petein, M., Michel, P., van Velthoven, R., Pasteels, J.L., Brawer, M.K., Davis, J.R., Nagle, R.B., Kiss, R. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Neoadjuvant hormonal manipulation: a strategy for chemoprevention trials. Fair, W.R., Aprikian, A., Reuter, V. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Interobserver reproducibility in the diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Epstein, J.I., Grignon, D.J., Humphrey, P.A., McNeal, J.E., Sesterhenn, I.A., Troncoso, P., Wheeler, T.M. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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