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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Prostate


High impact information on Prostate

  • In vivo, androgen ablation increased PEDF in normal rat prostates and in human cancer biopsies [6].
  • By inhibiting the activity of arginase and nitric oxide synthase, key enzymes of L-arginine metabolism that are highly expressed in malignant but not in normal prostates, reduced tyrosine nitration and restoration of TIL responsiveness to tumor were achieved [7].
  • RESULTS: PGHS-1 immunostaining was localized to stromal fibroblasts and vascular endothelium in normal and cancerous prostates [3].
  • At 140 weeks of age, the animals were killed, and the prostates were removed and examined for histopathologic features in addition to being assayed for androgen concentrations [8].
  • The dihydrotestosterone content in normal prostates (mean +/- SE, 5.1 +/- 0.4 ng/g tissue) and in benign hyperplastic prostates (5.0 +/- 0.4) was similar [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of Prostate


Biological context of Prostate

  • Effects of androgen and polyamines on the phosphorylation of nucleolar proteins from rat ventral prostates with particular reference to 110-kDa phosphoprotein [15].
  • The staining for DNA breaks and the tTG staining also indicate that an increased rate of apoptosis is occurring transiently in these prostates [16].
  • Multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed in the cytosol as well as in the nuclear salt extractable and salt-resistant compartments of normal, benign hyperplastic, and cancerous human prostates [17].
  • We show that BMP7(lacZ/lacZ) null prostates show a two-fold increase in prostate branching, while recombinant BMP7 inhibits prostate morphogenesis in organ culture in a concentration-dependent manner [18].
  • When 2-yr-old dogs with starting prostates already at their maximum normal cellular content are subsequently treated for 4 months with dihydrotestosterone (DHT), such treatment induces an additional 2-fold abnormal proliferative increase in prostatic cell number above that seen in normal glands from untreated dogs of any age [19].

Anatomical context of Prostate

  • To investigate the mechanism of this synergism, cytosol androgen binding was measured by a density gradient technique in prostates of control and 17 beta-estradiol-treated castrate dogs [20].
  • Murine 8-lipoxygenase (8-LOX), homologue of the 15-LOX-2 enzyme that is expressed in benign human prostatic epithelium and reduced in Pca, was not detected in wild-type or LPB-Tag prostates as determined by enzyme assay, reverse transcription-PCR, and immunohistochemistry [21].
  • Using the substrate poly[Glu80Na,Tyr20] [poly(GT)] and the autoradiographic detection of alkali-resistant phosphoproteins after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) has been evidenced in human hyperplastic prostates (BPH) and the prostatic carcinoma cell lines PC3 and DU145 [22].
  • In contrast, pp125FAK and paxillin were up-regulated by androgen deprivation (castration) and further increased by estrogen treatment, which yielded metaplastic prostates mostly composed of proliferating basal epithelial cells [23].
  • Three weeks after transplantation, the animals were sacrificed by decapitation and a significant increase in plasma prolactin was observed, which was accompanied by a highly significant increase in the weights of seminal vesicles, ventral and dorsal prostates, and adrenals [24].

Associations of Prostate with chemical compounds

  • These findings fail to confirm the widespread belief that dihydrotestosterone content is elevated in benign hyperplastic prostates [9].
  • The compounds also reduced the concentration of testosterone in rat prostates by 35-75% [25].
  • The BB form of creatine kinase accounts for 98% of the activity in prostatic carcinoma and in prostates without cancer [10].
  • The photoaffinity labeling of the regulatory subunits of adenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent soluble protein kinases with an adenosine cyclic 3':5' monophosphate analogue, 8-azidoadenosine cyclic 3':5'-monophosphate (8-N3-cAMP) was compared in normal prostates and prostatic (Dunning) tumors [26].
  • There was a gradual decrease in the vitamin A content of the prostates of the 4-HPR-treated group as compared with the control, such that by the end of the study period, the CON+4HPR group averaged 0.166 +/- 0.0827 (mean +/- SD) REs, whereas the CON group was 0.732 +/- 0.190 REs [27].

Gene context of Prostate

  • In prostates from mice in which the ERbeta gene has been inactivated (BERKO), androgen receptor (AR) levels are elevated, and the tissue contains multiple hyperplastic foci [28].
  • Abnormalities in Pten mutant skin consisted of mild epidermal hyperplasia, whereas prostates from these mice exhibited high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) that frequently progressed to focally invasive cancer [29].
  • Treatment of developing prostates with SFRP1 in culture led to increased organ growth [30].
  • Conversely, GRP receptors were identified in only a few hyperplastic prostates and were localized in very low density in glandular tissue and, focally, in some stromal tissue [31].
  • The present study shows that the ERbeta gene is expressed together with ERalpha in normal prostates and NPECs, whereas it is barely detectable in prostate cancer and CPECS: Moreover, in some CPECs, the ERalpha gene may be transcribed in a changed protein, resulting from the expression of a deletion variant [32].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Prostate


  1. Frequent somatic mutations of the transcription factor ATBF1 in human prostate cancer. Sun, X., Frierson, H.F., Chen, C., Li, C., Ran, Q., Otto, K.B., Cantarel, B.L., Cantarel, B.M., Vessella, R.L., Gao, A.C., Petros, J., Miura, Y., Simons, J.W., Dong, J.T. Nat. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Expression of ras oncogene p21 in prostate cancer. Viola, M.V., Fromowitz, F., Oravez, S., Deb, S., Finkel, G., Lundy, J., Hand, P., Thor, A., Schlom, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  3. Induction of prostaglandin G/H synthase-2 in a canine model of spontaneous prostatic adenocarcinoma. Tremblay, C., Doré, M., Bochsler, P.N., Sirois, J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1999) [Pubmed]
  4. Biochemical alterations in sex hormone-induced hyperplasia and dysplasia of the dorsolateral prostates of Noble rats. Leav, I., Ho, S.M., Ofner, P., Merk, F.B., Kwan, P.W., Damassa, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1988) [Pubmed]
  5. Physiologic self antigens rapidly capacitate autoimmune disease-specific polyclonal CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. Setiady, Y.Y., Ohno, K., Samy, E.T., Bagavant, H., Qiao, H., Sharp, C., She, J.X., Tung, K.S. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Pigment epithelium-derived factor regulates the vasculature and mass of the prostate and pancreas. Doll, J.A., Stellmach, V.M., Bouck, N.P., Bergh, A.R., Lee, C., Abramson, L.P., Cornwell, M.L., Pins, M.R., Borensztajn, J., Crawford, S.E. Nat. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  7. Boosting antitumor responses of T lymphocytes infiltrating human prostate cancers. Bronte, V., Kasic, T., Gri, G., Gallana, K., Borsellino, G., Marigo, I., Battistini, L., Iafrate, M., Prayer-Galetti, T., Pagano, F., Viola, A. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Inhibition of rat prostate carcinogenesis by a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, FK143. Homma, Y., Kaneko, M., Kondo, Y., Kawabe, K., Kakizoe, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Tissue content of dihydrotestosterone in human prostatic hyperplasis is not supranormal. Walsh, P.C., Hutchins, G.M., Ewing, L.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  10. Decrease in creatine kinase in human prostatic carcinoma compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Pretlow, T.G., Whitehurst, G.B., Pretlow, T.P., Hunt, R.S., Jacobs, J.M., McKenzie, D.R., McDaniel, H.G., Hall, L.M., Bradley, E.L. Cancer Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of E-cadherin in primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Cheng, L., Nagabhushan, M., Pretlow, T.P., Amini, S.B., Pretlow, T.G. Am. J. Pathol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  12. Steroid receptor content in cytosol from normal and hyperplastic human prostates. Ekman, P., Snochowski, M., Dahlberg, E., Bression, D., Högberg, B., Gustafsson, J.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Antigonadal actions of olfactory and light deprivation. II. Effects of pinealectomy or melatonin injections in olfactory bulb deafferented or bulbectomized male rats. Mediavilla, M.D., Sánchez-Barceló, E.J., Sánchez-Criado, J.E., Cos, S., Cortines, M.D. J. Pineal Res. (1985) [Pubmed]
  14. Induction of atypical hyperplasia, apoptosis, and type II estrogen-binding sites in the ventral prostates of Noble rats treated with testosterone and pharmacologic doses of estradiol-17 beta. Ho, S.M., Leav, I., Merk, F.B., Yu, M., Kwan, P.W., Ziar, J. Lab. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. Effects of androgen and polyamines on the phosphorylation of nucleolar proteins from rat ventral prostates with particular reference to 110-kDa phosphoprotein. Suzuki, N., Matsui, H., Hosoya, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1985) [Pubmed]
  16. Evidence for atrophy and apoptosis in the prostates of men given finasteride. Rittmaster, R.S., Norman, R.W., Thomas, L.N., Rowden, G. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1996) [Pubmed]
  17. Estrogen receptors in human prostate: evidence for multiple binding sites. Ekman, P., Barrack, E.R., Greene, G.L., Jensen, E.V., Walsh, P.C. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1983) [Pubmed]
  18. BMP7 inhibits branching morphogenesis in the prostate gland and interferes with Notch signaling. Grishina, I.B., Kim, S.Y., Ferrara, C., Makarenkova, H.P., Walden, P.D. Dev. Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Comparative aspects of prostatic growth and androgen metabolism with aging in the dog versus the rat. Berry, S.J., Isaacs, J.T. Endocrinology (1984) [Pubmed]
  20. Regulation of cytoplasmic dihydrotestosterone binding in dog prostate by 17 beta-estradiol. Moore, R.J., Gazak, J.M., Wilson, J.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  21. Elevated expression of 12/15-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2 in a transgenic mouse model of prostate carcinoma. Shappell, S.B., Olson, S.J., Hannah, S.E., Manning, S., Roberts, R.L., Masumori, N., Jisaka, M., Boeglin, W.E., Vader, V., Dave, D.S., Shook, M.F., Thomas, T.Z., Funk, C.D., Brash, A.R., Matusik, R.J. Cancer Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Tyrosine protein kinase activity of human hyperplastic prostate and carcinoma cell lines PC3 and DU145. Durocher, Y., Chapdelaine, A., Chevalier, S. Cancer Res. (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. Regulation and activation of focal adhesion kinase and paxillin during the adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. Tremblay, L., Hauck, W., Nguyen, L.T., Allard, P., Landry, F., Chapdelaine, A., Chevalier, S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Evidence for a role of prolactin in prostate and seminal vesicle growth in immature male rats. Negro-Vilar, A., Saad, W.A., McCann, S.M. Endocrinology (1977) [Pubmed]
  25. Effects of some novel inhibitors of C17,20-lyase and 5alpha-reductase in vitro and in vivo and their potential role in the treatment of prostate cancer. Nnane, I.P., Kato, K., Liu, Y., Lu, Q., Wang, X., Ling, Y.Z., Brodie, A. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. Comparison of soluble protein kinases from normal rat prostates and prostatic Dunning tumors. Chung, L.W., Breitweiser, K. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Retinoid metabolism in the prostate: effects of administration of the synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide. Lewis, K.C., Hochadel, J.F. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  28. A role for estrogen receptor beta in the regulation of growth of the ventral prostate. Weihua, Z., Makela, S., Andersson, L.C., Salmi, S., Saji, S., Webster, J.I., Jensen, E.V., Nilsson, S., Warner, M., Gustafsson, J.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Early onset of neoplasia in the prostate and skin of mice with tissue-specific deletion of Pten. Backman, S.A., Ghazarian, D., So, K., Sanchez, O., Wagner, K.U., Hennighausen, L., Suzuki, A., Tsao, M.S., Chapman, W.B., Stambolic, V., Mak, T.W. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  30. Identification of SFRP1 as a candidate mediator of stromal-to-epithelial signaling in prostate cancer. Joesting, M.S., Perrin, S., Elenbaas, B., Fawell, S.E., Rubin, J.S., Franco, O.E., Hayward, S.W., Cunha, G.R., Marker, P.C. Cancer Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors in the human prostate: relation to neoplastic transformation. Markwalder, R., Reubi, J.C. Cancer Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Loss of estrogen receptor beta expression in malignant human prostate cells in primary cultures and in prostate cancer tissues. Pasquali, D., Rossi, V., Esposito, D., Abbondanza, C., Puca, G.A., Bellastella, A., Sinisi, A.A. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Molecular characterization of a metastatic neuroendocrine cell cancer arising in the prostates of transgenic mice. Hu, Y., Ippolito, J.E., Garabedian, E.M., Humphrey, P.A., Gordon, J.I. J. Biol. Chem. (2002) [Pubmed]
  34. Cortisol alters gene expression during involution of the rat ventral prostate. Rennie, P.S., Bowden, J.F., Freeman, S.N., Bruchovsky, N., Cheng, H., Lubahn, D.B., Wilson, E.M., French, F.S., Main, L. Mol. Endocrinol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  35. Sonic hedgehog-patched Gli signaling in the developing rat prostate gland: lobe-specific suppression by neonatal estrogens reduces ductal growth and branching. Pu, Y., Huang, L., Prins, G.S. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Radioimmunoassay measurements of nuclear dihydrotestosterone in rat prostate. Relationship to androgen receptors and androgen-regulated responses. De Larminat, M.A., Rennie, P.S., Bruchovsky, N. Biochem. J. (1981) [Pubmed]
  37. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-Gly conversion to TRH in rat ventral prostate is inhibited by castration and aging. Pekary, A.E., Knoble, M., Garcia, N. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
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